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Provided by: abcde_2.3.99.6-1_all



        abcde  -  Grab  an  entire CD and compress it to Ogg/Vorbis, MP3, FLAC,
        Ogg/Speex and/or MPP/MP+(Musepack) format.


        abcde [options] [tracks]


        Ordinarily, the process of grabbing the data off a CD and encoding  it,
        then  tagging or commenting it, is very involved.  abcde is designed to
        automate this. It will take an entire CD and convert  it  into  a  com‐
        pressed  audio format - Ogg/Vorbis, MPEG Audio Layer III, Free Lossless
        Audio Codec (FLAC), Ogg/Speex, MPP/MP+(Musepack) and/or M4A (AAC)  for‐
        mat(s).  With one command, it will:
        *      Do  a  CDDB  query over the Internet to look up your CD or use a
               locally stored CDDB entry
        *      Grab an audio track (or all the audio CD tracks) from your CD
        *      Normalize the volume of the individual file (or the album  as  a
               single unit)
        *      Compress  to Ogg/Vorbis, MP3, FLAC, Ogg/Speex, MPP/MP+(Musepack)
               and/or M4A format(s), all in one CD read
        *      Comment or ID3/ID3v2 tag
        *      Give an intelligible filename
        *      Calculate replaygain values for  the  individual  file  (or  the
               album as a single unit)
        *      Delete the intermediate WAV file (or save it for later use)
        *      Repeat until finished
        Alternatively,  abcde can also grab a CD and turn it into a single FLAC
        file with an embedded cuesheet which can be user later on as  a  source
        for other formats, and will be treated as if it was the original CD. In
        a way, abcde can take a compressed backup of your CD collection.


        -1     Encode the whole CD in a single file. The  resulting  file  uses
               the CD title for tagging. If the resulting format is a flac file
               with an embedded cuesheet, the file can be used as a source  for
               creating other formats. Use "-1 -M -o flac" for obtaining such a
        -a [actions]
               Comma-delimited list of actions to perform. Can be one  or  more
               of:  cddb,  cue, read, normalize, encode, tag, move, replaygain,
               playlist, clean. Normalize and encode imply  read.  Tag  implies
               cddb,  read,  encode.  Move  implies  cddb,  read,  encode, tag.
               Replaygain implies cddb, read, encode, tag and  move.   Playlist
               implies cddb. The default is to do all actions except normalize,
               replaygain and playlist.
        -b     Enable batch mode normalization. See the BATCHNORM configuration
        -B     Disable  batch mode replaygain. It processes file by file to add
               the   replaygain   information.   See   the    NOBATCHREPLAYGAIN
               configuration variable.
        -c [filename]
               Specifies  an additional configuration file to parse. Configura‐
               tion options in this file override those in  /etc/abcde.conf  or
        -C [discid]
               Allows  you  to  resume  a session for discid when you no longer
               have the CD available (abcde will automatically  resume  if  you
               still  have the CD in the drive). You must have already finished
               at least the "read" action during the previous session.
        -d [devicename | filename]
               CD-ROM block device that  contains  audio  tracks  to  be  read.
               Alternatively,  a single-track flac file with embedded cuesheet.
        -D     Capture debugging information (you’ll want to  redirect  this  -
               try ’abcde -D 2>logfile’)
        -e     Erase  information about encoded tracks from the internal status
               file, to enable other encodings if the wav files have been kept.
        -f     Force  the removal of the temporary ABCDETEMPDIR directory, even
               when we have not finished. For example, one can read and  encode
               several formats, including ´.ogg´, and later on execute a ´move´
               action with only one of the given formats. On a normal situation
               it  would erase the rest of those encoded formats. In this case,
               abcde will refuse to execute such command, except if -f is used.
        -g     Enable  lame’s --nogap option.  See the NOGAP variable. WARNING:
               lame’s --nogap disables the Xing mp3 tag.  This tag is  required
               for  mp3 players to correctly display track lengths when playing
               variable-bit-rate mp3 files.
        -h     Get help information.
        -j [number]
               Start [number] encoder processes at once. Useful  for  SMP  sys‐
               tems.  Overrides  the MAXPROCS configuration variable. Set it to
               "0" when using distmp3 to avoid local encoding processes.
        -k     Keep the wav files after encoding.
        -l     Use the low-diskspace algorithm. See the  LOWDISK  configuration
        -L     Use a local CDDB repository. See CDDBLOCALDIR variable.
        -n     Do  not query CDDB database. Create and use a template. Edit the
               template to provide song names, artist(s), ...
        -N     Non interactive mode. Do not ask anything from the user. Just go
        -m     Create  DOS-style  playlists,  modifying  the  resulting  one by
               adding CRLF line endings. Some hardware players insist on having
               those to work.
        -o [filetype][:filetypeoptions]
               Select  output  type. Can be "vorbis" (or "ogg"), "mp3", "flac",
               "spx", "mpc", "m4a" or "wav".  Specify a comma-delimited list of
               output  types to obtain all specified types.  See the OUTPUTTYPE
               configuration variable. One can pass options to the encoder  for
               a  specific  filetype on the command line separating them with a
               colon. The options must be escaped with double-quotes.
        -p     Pads track numbers with 0´s.
        -P     Use Unix PIPES to read and encode in one step. It disables  mul‐
               tiple encodings, since the WAV audio file is never stored in the
        -r [hosts...]
               Remote encode on this comma-delimited  list  of  machines  using
               distmp3. See the REMOTEHOSTS configuration variable.
        -R     When  CDDBLOCALDIR  and  CDDBUSELOCAL are defined, search recur‐
               sively under the defined  directory  for  matches  of  the  CDDB
        -s [fields...]
               List,  separated  by  comas,  the fields to be shown in the CDDB
               parsed entries.  Right now it only uses "year" and "genre".
        -S [speed]
               Set the speed of the CD drive. Needs CDSPEED and CDSPEEDOPTS set
               properly  and both the program and device must support the capa‐
        -t [number]
               Start the numbering of the tracks at a  given  number.  It  only
               affects the filenames and the playlist. Internal (tag) numbering
               remains the same.
        -T [number]
               Same as -t but changes also the internal (tag)  numbering.  Keep
               in  mind  that the default TRACK tag for MP3 is $T/$TRACKS so it
               is changed to simply $T.
        -U     Set CDDBPROTO to version 5,  so  that  we  retrieve  ISO-8859-15
               encoded  CDDB  information,  and  we  tag  and add comments with
               Latin1 encoding.
        -v     Show the version and exit
        -V     Be a bit more verbose. On slow networks the CDDB requests  might
               give the sensation nothing is happening.
        -x     Eject  the  CD  when  all tracks have been read. See the EJECTCD
               configuration variable.
        -X [cue2discid]
               Use an alternative "cue2discid" implementation. The name of  the
               binary  must be exactly that. abcde comes with an implementation
               in python under the  examples  directory.  The  special  keyword
               "builtin" forces the usage of the internal (default) implementa‐
               tion in shell script.
        -w [comment]
               Add a comment to the tracks ripped from the CD.
        -W [number]
               Concatenate CD´s. It uses the number provided to define  a  com‐
               ment  "CD #" and to modify the numbering of the tracks, starting
               with "#01".
        -z     DEBUG mode: it will rip, using cdparanoia, the very first second
               of  each  track  and  proceed  with  the  actions requested very
               quickly, also providing some  "hidden"  information  about  what
               happens  on  the background. CAUTION: IT WILL ERASE ANY EXISTING
               RIPS WITHOUT WARNING!
               A list of tracks you want abcde to process. If this isn’t speci‐
               fied,  abcde will process the entire CD. Accepts ranges of track
               numbers - "abcde 1-5 7 9" will process tracks 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,  7,
               and 9.


        Each  track  is,  by default, placed in a separate file named after the
        track in a subdirectory named after the artist under the current direc‐
        tory.   This  can be modified using the OUTPUTFORMAT and VAOUTPUTFORMAT
        variables in your abcde.conf. Each file is given an extension identify‐
        ing  its  compression  format,  ’vorbis’  for  ’.ogg’, ’.mp3’, ’.flac’,
        ’.spx’, ’.mpc’, ’.aac’ or ’.wav’.


        abcde sources two configuration files on startup - /etc/abcde.conf  and
        $HOME/.abcde.conf, in that order.
        The  configuration  options  stated on those files can be overridden by
               the appropriate flags at runtime.
        The configuration variables have to be set as follows:
               Except when "value" needs to be quoted or otherwise interpreted.
               If other variables within "value" are to be expanded upon  read‐
               ing  the  configuration file, then double quotes should be used.
               If they are only supposed to be expanded upon use  (for  example
               OUTPUTFORMAT) then single quotes must be used.
        All sh escaping/quoting rules apply.
        Here is a list of options abcde recognizes:
               Specifies the method we want to use to retrieve the track infor‐
               mation. Two values are recognized: "cddb" and "musicbrainz". The
               "cddb" value needs the CDDBURL and HELLOINFO variables described
               below. The "musicbrainz" value uses Python to establish  a  con‐
               versation with the server for information retrieval.
               Specifies a server to use for CDDB lookups.
               Specifies  the  protocol  version used for the CDDB retrieval of
               results. Version 6 retrieves CDDB entries in UTF-8 format.
               Specifies the Hello information to send to the CDDB server.  The
               CDDB protocol requires you to send a valid username and hostname
               each time you connect. The format of this is  username@hostname.
               Specifies  a  directory  where we store a local CDDB repository.
               The entries must be standard CDDB  entries,  with  the  filename
               being  the  DISCID  value. Other CD playing and ripping programs
               (like Grip) store the entries under ~/.cddb and we can make  use
               of those entries.
               Specifies  if  the  CDDBLOCALDIR  has to be searched recursively
               trying to find a match for the CDDB entry. If a match  is  found
               and  selected,  and CDDBCOPYLOCAL is selected, it will be copied
               to the root of the CDDBLOCALDIR if CDDBLOCALPOLICY is "modified"
               or "new".
               Defines  when  a  CDDB  entry  should  be  stored in the defined
               CDDBLOCALDIR. The possible policies are: "net" for a CDDB  entry
               which  has  been received from the net (overwriting any possible
               local CDDB entry); "new" for a CDDB  entry  which  was  received
               from the net, but will request confirmation to overwrite a local
               CDDB entry found in the  root  of  the  CDDBLOCALDIR  directory;
               "modified"  for  a  CDDB entry found in the local repository but
               which has been modified by the user; and "always"  which  forces
               the CDDB entry to be stored back in the root of the CDDBLOCALDIR
               no matter where it was found, and no matter it was  not  edited.
               This last option will always overwrite the one found in the root
               of the local repository (if any). STILL NOT WORKING!!
               Store local copies of the CDDB entries under  the  $CDDBLOCALDIR
               Actually use the stored copies of the CDDB entries. Can be over‐
               ridden using the "-L" flag (if is CDDBUSELOCAL in  "n").  If  an
               entry  is  found, we always give the choice of retrieving a CDDB
               entry from the internet.
               Coma-separated list of fields we want to parse during  the  CDDB
               parsing.  Defaults to "year,genre".
               Specifies  the  style  of  encoder  to  use  for  the Ogg/Vorbis
               encoder. Valid options are ´oggenc´ (default for Ogg/Vorbis) and
               ´vorbize´.  This affects the default location of the binary, the
               variable to pick encoder command-line options  from,  and  where
               the options are given.
               Specifies the style of encoder to use for the MP3 encoder. Valid
               options  are  ´lame´  (default  for  MP3),  ´gogo´,  ´bladeenc´,
               ´l3enc´  and  ´mp3enc´.  Affects the same way as explained above
               for Ogg/Vorbis.
               Specifies the style of encoder to use for the FLAC  encoder.  At
               this point only ´flac´ is available for FLAC encoding.
               Specifies the style of encoder to use for Speex encoder. At this
               point only ´speexenc´ is available for Ogg/Speex encoding.
               Specifies the style of encoder to  use  for  MPP/MP+  (Musepack)
               encoder.  At  this  point  we only have ´mppenc´ available, from
               Specifies the style of encoder to use for M4A (AAC) encoder.  At
               this point we only support ´faac´, so ´default´ points to it.
               Specifies  the  style  of  normalizer to use.  Valid options are
               ´default´  and  ´normalize’ (and  both  run  ´normalize-audio´),
               since we only support it, ATM.
               Specifies  the  style  of cdrom reader to use. Valid options are
               ´cdparanoia´, ´debug´ and ´flac´. It is used  for  querying  the
               CDROM  and  obtain  a  list of valid tracks and DATA tracks. The
               special ´flac´ case is used to "rip" CD tracks  from  a  single-
               track flac file.
               Specifies  the  syntax  of the program we use to read the CD CUE
               sheet. Right now we only support  ´mkcue´,  but  in  the  future
               other readers might be used.
               It defaults to no, so if you want to keep those wavs ripped from
               your CD, set it to "y". You can use the "-k" switch in the  com‐
               mand  line.  The  default behaviour with KEEPWAVS set is to keep
               the  temporary  directory  and  the  wav  files  even  you  have
               requested the "clean" action.
               If  set  to  "y",  it adds 0’s to the file numbers to complete a
               two-number holder. Useful when encoding tracks 1-9.
               Set to "n" if you want to perform automatic rips,  without  user
               Define the values for priorities (nice values) for the different
               CPU-hungry processes: encoding (ENCNICE), CDROM read  (READNICE)
               and distributed encoder with distmp3 (DISTMP3NICE).
               The  following  configuration file options specify the pathnames
               of their respective utilities: LAME,  TOOLAME,  GOGO,  BLADEENC,
               MPPENC,  AACEND,  ID3,  ID3V2,  EYED3,   METAFLAC,   CDPARANOIA,
               MKCUE, MKTOC, CUE2DISCID (see option "-X"), DIFF and HTTPGET.
               If  you  wish to specify command-line options to any of the pro‐
               grams abcde uses, set the following configuration file  options:
               Set the value of the CDROM speed. The default  is  to  read  the
               disc  as fast as the reading program and the system permits. The
               steps are defined as 150kB/s (1x).
               The default actions to be performed when reading a disc.
        CDROM  If set, it points to the CD-Rom device which has to be used  for
               audio  extraction. Abcde tries to guess the right device, but it
               may fail. The special ´flac´ option is defined to extract tracks
               from a single-track flac file.
               Defined  as "d" when using cdparanoia with an IDE bus and as "g"
               when using cdparanoia with the ide-scsi emulation layer.
               Specifies the directory to place completed tracks/playlists  in.
               Specifies  the temporary directory to store .wav files in. Abcde
               may use  up  to  700MB  of  temporary  space  for  each  session
               (although  it  is  rare to use over 100MB for a machine that can
               encode music as fast as it can read it).
               Specifies the encoding format to output, as well as the  default
               extension  and encoder. Defaults to "vorbis". Valid settings are
               "vorbis" (or "ogg")  (Ogg/Vorbis),  "mp3"  (MPEG-1  Audio  Layer
               III),  "flac"  (Free  Lossless  Audio Codec), "spx" (Ogg/Speex),
               "mpc" (MPP/MP+ (Musepack)),  "m4a"  (for  M4A  (AAC))  or  "wav"
               (Microsoft Waveform). Values like "vorbis,mp3" encode the tracks
               in both Ogg/Vorbis and MP3 formats.
               For each value in OUTPUTTYPE, abcde expands a different  process
               for  encoding,  tagging  and  moving,  so you can use the format
               placeholder, OUTPUT, to create different subdirectories to  hold
               the  different  types.  The  variable  OUTPUT  will be ’vorbis’,
               ’mp3’, ’flac’, ’spx’, ’mpc’, ’m4a’ and/or  ’wav’,  depending  on
               the OUTPUTTYPE you define. For example
               Specifies  the  format  for  completed  Ogg/Vorbis,  MP3,  FLAC,
               Ogg/Speex,  MPP/MP+  (Musepack)  or M4A filenames. Variables are
               included using standard  shell  syntax.  Allowed  variables  are
               Default   is    ´${ARTISTFILE}-${ALBUMFILE}/${TRACKNUM}-${TRACK‐
               FILE}´.   Make  sure  to use single quotes around this variable.
               TRACKNUM  is  automatically  zero-padded,  when  the  number  of
               encoded tracks is higher than 9. When lower, you can force with
               Just  like  OUTPUTFORMAT  but  for  Various  Artists  discs. The
               default      is      ’Various-${ALBUMFILE}/${TRACKNUM}.${ARTIST‐
               Just  like  OUTPUTFORMAT  but  for single-track rips (see option
               "-1"). The default is ’${ARTISTFILE}-${ALBUMFILE}/${ALBUMFILE}’
               Just like ONETRACKOUTPUTFORMAT but for  Various  Artists  discs.
               The default is ’Various-${ALBUMFILE}/${ALBUMFILE}’
               Defines  how  many  encoders to run at once. This makes for huge
               speedups on SMP systems. You should run one encoder per  CPU  at
               once  for  maximum  efficiency,  although more doesn’t hurt very
               much. Set it "0" when using mp3dist to  avoid  getting  encoding
               processes in the local host.
               If set to y, conserves disk space by encoding tracks immediately
               after reading them. This is  substantially  slower  than  normal
               operation but requires several hundred MB less space to complete
               the encoding of an entire CD. Use only if your system is low  on
               space and cannot encode as quickly as it can read.
               If  set  to y, enables batch mode normalization, which preserves
               relative volume differences between tracks  of  an  album.  Also
               enables nogap encoding when using the ´lame´ encoder.
        NOGAP  Activate  the  lame’s --nogap option, that allows files found in
               CDs with no silence between songs (such as live concerts) to  be
               encoded  without  noticeable  gaps. WARNING: lame’s --nogap dis‐
               ables the Xing mp3 tag.  This tag is required for mp3 players to
               correctly  display  track lengths when playing variable-bit-rate
               mp3 files.
               Specifies the format for  completed  playlist  filenames.  Works
               like   the   OUTPUTFORMAT  configuration  variable.  Default  is
               ´${ARTISTFILE}_-_${ALBUMFILE}.m3u´.  Make  sure  to  use  single
               quotes around this variable.
               Specifies  a  prefix for filenames within a playlist. Useful for
               http playlists, etc.
               If set, the resulting playlist will  have  CR-LF  line  endings,
               needed by some hardware-based players.
               Specifies  a comment to embed in the ID3 or Ogg comment field of
               each finished track. Can be up to 28 characters  long.  Supports
               the  same  syntax  as  OUTPUTFORMAT.  Does not currently support
               Specifies a comma-delimited list of systems to  use  for  remote
               encoding using distmp3. Equivalent to -r.
               mungefilename()  is an abcde shell function that can be overrid‐
               den via abcde.conf. It takes CDDB data as  $1  and  outputs  the
               resulting  filename  on  stdout.  It  defaults to eating control
               characters, apostrophes and question marks,  translating  spaces
               and forward slashes to underscores, and translating colons to an
               underscore and a hyphen.
               If you modify this function, it is probably a good idea to  keep
               the  forward  slash munging (UNIX cannot store a file with a ’/’
               char in it) as well as the control character munging (NULs can’t
               be  in a filename either, and newlines and such in filenames are
               typically not desirable).
               mungegenre () is a shell function  used  to  modify  the  $GENRE
               variable. As a default action, it takes $GENRE as $1 and outputs
               the resulting value to stdout converting all  UPPERCASE  charac‐
               ters to lowercase.
               pre_read  ()  is  a  shell function which is executed before the
               CDROM is read for the first time, during abcde execution. It can
               be  used  to close the CDROM tray, to set its speed (via "setcd"
               or via "eject", if available) and other preparation actions. The
               default function is empty.
               post_read  ()  is  a  shell function which is executed after the
               CDROM is read (and, if applies, before the CDROM is ejected). It
               can  be used to read a TOC from the CDROM, or to try to read the
               DATA areas from the CD (if any exist).  The default function  is
eject(1) to eject the cdrom from
               the drive after all tracks have been read. It has no effect when
               CDROM is set to a flac file.
               If  set  to  "y", some operations which are usually now shown to
               the end user are visible, such as CDDB queries. Useful for  ini‐
               tial debug and if your network/CDDB server is slow.


        Possible ways one can call abcde
        abcde  Will work in most systems
        abcde -d /dev/cdrom2
               If the CDROM you are reading from is not the standard /dev/cdrom
               (in GNU/Linux systems)
        abcde -o vorbis,flac
               Will create both Ogg/Vorbis and Ogg/FLAC files.
        abcde -o vorbis:"-b 192"
               Will pass "-b 192" to the Ogg/Vorbis encoder, without having  to
               modify the config file
        abcde -W 1
               For  double+  CD  settings: will create the 1st CD starting with
               the track number 101, and will add  a  comment  "CD  1"  to  the
               tracks, the second starting with 201 and so on.
        abcde -d singletrack.flac
               Will extract the files contained in singletrack using the embed‐
               ded cuesheet.
        abcde requires the following backend tools to work:
        *      An Ogg/Vorbis, MP3, FLAC, Ogg/Speex,  MPP/MP+(Musepack)  or  M4A
               encoder  (oggenc,  vorbize, lame, gogo, bladeenc, l3enc, mp3enc,
               flac, speexenc, mppenc, faac)
        *      An audio CD reading utility (cdparanoia, cdda2wav, dagrab)
        *      cd-discid, a CDDB DiscID reading program.
        *      An HTTP retrieval program: wget, fetch (FreeBSD) or curl (Mac OS
               X,  among  others). Alternatively, musicbrainz-get-tracks (which
               depends on Python) can be  used  to  retrieve  CDDB  information
               about the CD.
        *      (for MP3s) id3 or id3v2, id3 v1 and v2 tagging programs.
        *      (optional)  distmp3,  a client/server for distributed mp3 encod‐
        *      (optional) normalize-audio, a WAV file volume normalizer.
        *      (optional)  a  replaygain  file  volume  modifier   (vorbisgain,
               metaflac, mp3gain, replaygain),
        *      (optional) mkcue, a CD cuesheet extractor.


        Robert Woodcock <rcw@debian.org>, Jesus Climent  <jesus.climent@hispal‐
        inux.es> and contributions from many others.


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