Ubuntu Feisty 7.04 manual page repository

Ubuntu is a free computer operating system based on the Linux kernel. Many IT companies, like DeployIS is using it to provide an up-to-date, stable operating system.

Provided by: abcm2ps_4.12.18-1_i386

 

NAME

        abcm2ps — translate ABC music notation to PostScript
 

SYNOPSIS

        abcm2ps [options]  [abc-file [file-options]]  [...]
 
        abcm2ps [-h]
 

DESCRIPTION

        abcm2ps  translates  tunes  written in the ABC music notation format to
        customary sheet music scores in PostScript. It is based on abc2ps 1.2.5
        and  was developed mainly to print Baroque organ scores that have inde‐
        pendent voices played on multiple keyboards and a pedal-board. The pro‐
        gram  has since been extended to support various other notation conven‐
        tions in use for sheet music.
 
        Options given immediately after the command name apply to the run as  a
        whole; options given after an ABC file name apply to that file.
 
        Formatting  parameters can also be set in ‘format files’ and in the ABC
        files themselves.
 

OPTIONS

        -0        Split tunes across page breaks if necessary.
 
        +0        Start a new page if a tune doesn’t fit  on  the  current  one
                  (default).
 
        -1        Output one tune per page.
 
        +1        Output multiple tunes per page (default).
 
        -a a      Maximal  horizontal  compression when staff breaks are chosen
                  automatically. Must be between 0 and 1 (default: 0.65)
 
        -B b      Try to typeset b bars on each staff line.
 
        +B        Don’t try to typeset a fixed number of  bars  on  each  staff
                  line (default).
 
        -b b      Start measure numbering at b.
 
        -C        Obsolete option; ignored.
 
        -c        The  continuation symbol is implicitly appended to each music
                  line. This amounts to automatic line breaking.
 
        +c        Automatic line breaking is turned off (default).
 
        -D directory
                  Search format files in directory.
 
        -d length Set the vertical interstaff space to length (default: 46pt)
 
        -E        Output is generated in EPS format, one file per page.
 
        +E        Output is generated in multipage PS format (default).
 
        -e list   Select which tunes from an ABC file  to  print.   list  is  a
                  comma-separated  list  of  tune  numbers  (as  per  the  ‘X:’
                  header). The -e option must occur after an ABC file name  and
                  applies to that file. Ranges of tune numbers may be specified
                  like t1-t2; t2 may be  omitted  which  means  ‘all  remaining
                  tunes  until  the end of file’. Note that filtering may cause
                  problems, e.g., with global (non-tune) definitions in the ABC
                  file.
 
        -F file   Read the format file file.fmt.
 
        +F        Do not read the default format file.
 
        -f        Enable flat beams in bagpipe tunes.
 
        -G        Omit slurs on grace notes.
 
        +G        Draw slurs on grace notes (default).
 
        -g        Obsolete option; ignored.
 
        -H        Display the current values of the formatting parameters.
 
        -h        Display program usage hints and quit.
 
        -I length Indent the first line of the tune by length (default: 0).
 
        -jb[b]    Output a measure number every b measures. If b is 0, the mea‐
                  sure number appears at the left of each staff. The trailing b
                  causes a box to be drawn around each measure number (default:
                  no measure numbering).
 
        +j        Don’t output measure numbers.
 
        -k        Equivalent to -j.
 
        +k        Equivalent to +j.
 
        -Lenc     Set the language encoding to  ISO-Latin-enc,  where  enc  can
                  take  on  values  from 0 to 6. The value 0 is equivalent to 1
                  but no PostScript encoding table is output (default: 0).
 
        -l        Generate landscape output.
 
        +l        Generate portrait output (default).
 
        -M        Suppress lyrics.
 
        +M        Include lyrics (default).
 
        -m length Set the left margin to length (default: 1.8cm)
 
        -N[mode]  Number pages according to the mode:
 
                  0         no page numbers
 
                  1         page numbers at top left of page
 
                  2         page numbers at top right of page
 
                  3         page numbers at top left  of  even-numbered  pages,
                            top right of odd-numbered pages
 
                  4         page  numbers  at top right of even-numbered pages,
                            top left of odd-numbered pages
 
                  For compatibility, -N is equivalent to -N2 (default: -N0).
 
        +N        Equivalent to -N0 (no page numbering).
 
        -n        Include notes and history from ABC tune ‘N:’ fields.
 
        +n        Omit notes and history from ABC tune ‘N:’ fields (default).
 
        -O name   Define the output file name. By default, the output file name
                  is  ‘Out.ps’  for  PostScript output and ‘Outnnn.eps’ for EPS
                  output (see -E). If this option is  given,  the  output  name
                  will  be  name  or namennn.eps, respectively. If name is ‘=’,
                  the output file name will be the name of the ABC source  file
                  with  the extension ‘.ps’ or ‘.eps’. If name is ‘-’, the out‐
                  put is written to stdout.
 
        +O        Revert  to  the  default  output  file  name   (‘Out.ps’   or
                  ‘Outnnn.eps’)
 
        -o        Obsolete option; ignored.
 
        -P        Obsolete option; ignored.
 
        -p        Obsolete option; ignored.
 
        -Q        Print tempo (metronome) indications (default).
 
        +Q        Omit tempo (metronome) indications.
 
        -R        Obsolete option; ignored.
 
        -S        Obsolete option; ignored.
 
        -s scale  Set  the page scale factor to scale. Note that the header and
                  footer are not scaled (default: 0.75).
 
        -T        Obsolete option; ignored.
 
        -u        Use implicit decorations as in abc2ps (default: off)
 
        -V        Output version number and quit.
 
        -v        Obsolete option; ignored.
 
        -W vp     Display a tin whistle tablature for  the  voice  numbered  v,
                  where  v  is the internal voice number that is incremented as
                  new voices are encountered; it is not the voice  name.  p  is
                  the  base pitch of the tin whistle. Up to four tablatures may
                  be defined, as in ‘-W1c -W2Bb’.
 
        +W        Don’t output tin whistle tablatures (default).
 
        -w length Adjust the right margin such that the staff width  is  length
                  (default: none)
 
        -x        Include the ‘X:’ tune number in the title.
 
        +x        Do not include the ‘X:’ tune number in the title (default).
        The  following  formatting parameters can be used in format files. They
        can also occur in ABC files when they are preceded  by  %%,  or  as  I:
        headers (even in the middle of a music line).
 
        alignbars int
                  Align  the  bars  of  the next int lines of music. This works
                  only when the  music  contains  only  one  voice  (no  V:  or
                  %%staves) (default: 0).
 
        aligncomposer int
                  Define  where to display the composer field. A negative value
                  displays it flush-left, a  value  of  zero  centered,  and  a
                  positive value flush-right (default: 1).
 
        annotationfont font [encoding] size
                  Set the annotation font to font with size size (default: Hel‐
                  vetica 12)
 
        autoclef boolean
                  Adjust the clefs when they are not defined in  ‘K:’  or  ‘V:’
                  lines (default: 1).
 
        barnumbers int
                  Synonym for measurenb.
 
        barsperstaff int
                  Try  to  typeset  with int bars per line (default: 0; command
                  line: -b, +b)
 
        beginps   Start a sequence of PostScript code lines extending until the
                  next endps line. This parameter may only occur within ABC and
                  format files, not on the command line.
 
        botmargin length
                  Set the bottom margin to length (default: 1cm)
 
        bstemdown boolean
                  If this is set, the stem of the note on  the  middle  of  the
                  staff  extends  downwards.  Otherwise  it  extends up or down
                  depending on the preceding note (default:0).
 
        comball boolean
                  If this is set together with combinevoices, voice combination
                  takes  place  in  all  cases.  Otherwise, notes which are too
                  close together in pitch are not combined.
 
        combinevoices boolean
                  If this is set,  simultaneous  notes  of  the  same  duration
                  belonging  to  voices  on  the  same  staff are combined into
                  chords (default: 0).
 
        composerfont font [encoding] size
                  Set the ‘composer’ font to  font  with  size  size  (default:
                  Times-Italic 14)
 
        composerspace length
                  Set  the  vertical  space  before the composer name to length
                  (Default: 0.2cm)
 
        contbarnb boolean
                  If this is not set, the bar numbers of second repeats are set
                  to  those of the corresponding first repeats. If this is set,
                  all bars are numbered sequentially (default: 0).
 
        continueall boolean
                  If this is set to true, ignore the  line  breaks  in  a  tune
                  (default: 0; command line: -c, +c)
 
        dateformat format
                  Format  for  date  and  time output. The admissible values of
                  this parameter are described in  the  documentation  for  the
strftime(3)  C library function. Note that percent signs need
                  to be escaped (default: "b e, Y H:M")
 
        deco name c_func ps_func h wl wr [str]
                  Define a decoration. This is an experimental feature which is
                  subject to change in future releases and requires good knowl‐
                  edge of the internals of abcm2ps. See  the  files  format.txt
                  and deco.abc for details.
 
        dynalign boolean
                  When set, horizontally align dynamic marks (default: 1)
 
        encoding enc
                  Set  the  language  encoding  to ISO-Latin-enc, where enc can
                  take values from 0 to 6. The value 0 is the same as 1, but no
                  PostScript encoding table is output.
 
                  Alternatively,  enc may take one of the predefined values us-
                  ascii,  iso-8859-1,   iso-8859-2,   iso-8859-3,   iso-8859-4,
                  iso-8859-9,  iso-8859-10, or native (meaning encoding vectors
                  will not be changed). If enc is anything else, it must  be  a
                  string which is taken to be PostScript commands that set up a
                  suitable encoding vector.
 
        exprabove boolean
                  Draw expression  decorations  above  the  staff.  If  neither
                  exprabove  nor  exprbelow  are ‘true’, expression decorations
                  are drawn above the staff if there are lyrics on  the  staff,
                  and  below otherwise. exprabove takes precedence over exprbe     
                  low (default: 0).
 
        exprbelow boolean
                  Draw expression  decorations  below  the  staff.  If  neither
                  exprabove  nor  exprbelow  are ‘true’, expression decorations
                  are drawn above the staff if there are lyrics on  the  staff,
                  and  below otherwise. exprabove takes precedence over exprbe     
                  low (default: 0).
 
        flatbeams boolean
                  Draw flat beams in bagpipe tunes (default: 0;  command  line:
                  -f)
 
        font font [encoding]
                  Define  a  font and its encoding. Use this parameter when you
                  want to refer to specific fonts in ABC files/tunes.  It  must
                  occur before any PostScript output is written, generally in a
                  format file. encoding defaults to the encoding set up by  the
                  encoding parameter.
 
        footer text
                  Define  the  text  printed at the bottom of every page. There
                  may be one or two lines. When there are two lines, these must
                  be  separated  by  the  characters ‘\n’ (not a real newline).
                  Each of the lines consists of three areas, left,  center  and
                  right,  which are separated by tabs (real tabs, not ’\t’) and
                  may be empty - if the left area is empty, the  text  must  be
                  quoted.
 
                  The ‘$’ character introduces variable expansion:
 
                  $d        The  date  and time of last modification of the ABC
                            file
 
                  $D        The current date and time
 
                  $F        The current input file name
 
                  $P        The current page number
 
                  $P0       The current pagenumber (when even)
 
                  $P1       The current pagenumber (when odd)
 
                  $T        The current tune title
 
                  $V        ‘abcm2ps-’ followed by the program’s version number
 
                  For  example,  the  command  line option -N3 is equivalent to
                  ‘%%header "$P0        $P1"’ (note the  two  tabs).  (Default:
                  none)
 
        footerfont font [encoding] size
                  Set  the  footer font to font with size size (default: Times-
                  Roman 12)
 
        format filename
                  Read the format file filename (default: none).
 
        freegchord boolean
                  Prevent the characters ‘#’, ‘b’ and ‘=’ to  be  displayed  as
                  the  sharp sign, the flat sign, and the natural sign, respec‐
                  tively, in guitar chords. When this flag is set, the  display
                  of  the  accidentals may be forced by escaping the characters
                  (‘\#’, ‘\b’ and ‘\=’) (default: 0)
 
        gchordbox boolean
                  Draw a box around guitar chords. Can be set to  ‘true’  using
                  ‘%%gchordfont’ below. (Default: 0)
 
        gchordfont font [encoding] size [box]
                  Set  the  guitar  chord  font  to font with size size. If box
                  is specified, draw a box around guitar chords (default:  Hel‐
                  vetica 12, no box)
 
        graceslurs boolean
                  Draw  slurs on grace notes if true (default: 1; command line:
                  -G, +G)
 
        header text
                  Define the text printed at the top of  every  page.  See  the
                  footer parameter above for the syntax (default: none)
 
        headerfont font [encoding] size
                  Set  the  header font to font with size size (default: Times-
                  Roman 12)
 
        historyfont font [encoding] size
                  Set the font for history  entries  to  font  with  size  size
                  (default: Times-Roman 16)
 
        hyphencont boolean
                  If an under-staff lyrics line ends with a hyphen, put another
                  hyphen at the beginning of the next line (default:0)
 
        indent length
                  Indent the first line of a tune by length (default:0; command
                  line: -I)
 
        infofont font [encoding] size
                  Set  the  information  line  font  to  font  with  size  size
                  (default: Times-Italic 14)
 
        infoline boolean
                  Display the rhythm (‘R:’), the origin (‘O:’),  and  the  area
                  (‘A:’)  of  the tune on a single ‘information line’ (default:
                  0)
 
        infospace length
                  Set the vertical space before the information line to  length
                  (default: 0).
 
        landscape boolean
                  Set  page  orientation to landscape if true (default: 0; com‐
                  mand line: -l, +l).
 
        leftmargin length
                  Set the left margin to length (default: 1.8cm; command  line:
                  -m)
 
        lineskipfac float
                  Set  the  factor  for  spacing between lines of text to float
                  times the font size (default: 1.1)
 
        maxshrink float
                  Set how much the output may be compressed  horizontally  when
                  staff  breaks are chosen automatically. float must be between
                  0 and 1 (default: 0.65; command line: -a)
 
        maxstaffsep length
                  Set  the  maximum  vertical  inter-staff  space   to   length
                  (default: 800pt)
 
        maxsysstaffsep length
                  Set  the  maximum vertical system inter-staff space to length
                  (default: 800pt)
 
        measurebox boolean
                  Draw a box around the measure numbers if  true  (default:  0;
                  command line: -j or -k).
 
        measurefirst int
                  Start  measure  numbering of the tune at int.  This parameter
                  is obsolete and should be replaced with  %%setbarnb  (outside
                  the tune body)
 
        measurefont font [encoding] size [box]
                  Set  the  font  for  measure numbers to font at size size. If
                  [box] is specified, draw a  box  around  the  measure  number
                  (default: Times-Italic 14, no box).
 
        measurenb int
                  Draw  a  measure number every int bars. If int is 0, the mea‐
                  sure number appears at the left end of each staff. If int  is
                  -1,  no  measure  numbers  are displayed at all (default: -1;
                  command line: -j or -k).
 
        musiconly boolean
                  If true, no lyrics are output (default: 0; command line:  -M,
                  +M)
 
        musicspace length
                  Set  the  vertical  space before the first staff of a tune to
                  length (default: 0.2cm)
 
        notespacingfactor float
                  Set the note spacing factor to float. This value is  used  to
                  compute  the  natural  space notes take up. The base space of
                  the crotchet (quarter note) is always 40pt. When the duration
                  of  a note type is twice that of another note type, the space
                  it takes up is multiplied by this factor. The  default  value
                  increases  the  note  space  by a factor of 2 when the corre‐
                  sponding note’s value increases by a factor of  4.  That  is,
                  the  space of a semibreve is 80pt and that of a semiquaver is
                  20pt. Setting this value to 1 sets all note  spaces  to  40pt
                  (default: 1.414).
 
        oneperpage boolean
                  If  true,  output one tune per page; if false, multiple tunes
                  are output per page if there is sufficient room (default:  0;
                  command line: -1, +1).
 
        pageheight length
                  Set the page height to length        (default: hardcoded)
 
        pagewidth length
                  Set the page width to length (default: hardcoded)
 
        parskipfac float
                  Set  the  factor for spacing between text paragraphs to float
                  (default: 0.4)
 
        partsbox boolean
                  Draw a box around the part names if true (default: 0)
 
        partsfont font [encoding] size [box]
                  Set the font for part names to font with size size. If box
                  is  specified,  draw  a box around the part names.  (default:
                  Times-Roman 15)
 
        partsspace length
                  Set the vertical space before a new part to length  (default:
                  0.3cm).
 
        postscript text
                  Define  a postscript sequence to be included in the header of
                  the output file.  This formatting parameter may  be  used  to
                  override  any  postscript function or to define new functions
                  for use in deco. It should be  processed  before  any  output
                  occurs,  that is, in a format file or at the beginning of the
                  first ABC file.
 
        printparts boolean
                  Print the part indications (‘P:’ header) (default: 1).
 
        printtempo boolean
                  Print tempo (metronome) indications  (‘Q:’  header)  if  true
                  (default: 1; command line: -Q, +Q).
 
        pslevel int
                  Define  the  PostScript  language level for output. Allowable
                  values are 1, 2, or 3.(default: 2).
 
        repeatfont font [encoding] size
                  Set the font for repeat bracket numbers/texts to font at size
                  size.
 
        rightmargin length
                  Set the right margin to length (default: 1.8cm)
 
        scale float
                  Set  the  global  page  scale  factor to float. This does not
                  apply to headers and footers (default:  0.75;  command  line:
                  -s).
 
        setdefl boolean
                  When  true,  output  some  indications  about  the note/chord
                  and/or decorations for purposes of customisation. These indi‐
                  cations  are  stored  in  the PostScript variable defl. Note:
                  This is a potential compatibility problem. The parameter  was
                  introduced in version 4.9.4.  (default: 0)
 
        setfont-1 font [encoding] size
 
        setfont-2 font [encoding] size
 
        setfont-3 font [encoding] size
 
        setfont-4 font [encoding] size
                  Set  up alternate fonts for strings. In most strings, you can
                  switch to one of the alternate fonts using  $1..$4;  $0
                  switches   back   to  the  default  value  for  that  string.
                  (default: Times-Roman 0)
 
        shifthnote boolean
                  Usually in multi-voice tunes, when two voices are  in  unison
                  and  one  has a half note and the other a note shorter than a
                  quarter note, there is only one note head (the half note). If
                  this  flag is set, both heads are displayed (one is shifted).
                  (default: 0)
 
        slurheight float
                  Set the slur height factor to float (default: 1.0).
 
        splittune boolean
                  If false, a tune is output on a new page if it doesn’t fit on
                  the  one currently being output. If true, a tune may be split
                  across page breaks (default: 0; command line: -0, +0).
 
        squarebreve boolean
                  If true, display breve notes in a square shape (default: 0)
 
        staffsep length
                  Set the vertical inter-staff space to length (default:  46pt;
                  command line: -d)
 
        staffwidth length
                  Set  the  right  margin  such  that the staff width is length
                  (default: none - but see paperwidth and rightmargin).
 
        stemheight float
                  Set the stem height to float (default: 20.0)
 
        straightflags boolean
                  If true, use straight flags on stems (mostly useful for  bag‐
                  pipe tunes (default: 0)
 
        stretchlast boolean
                  If  true,  stretch the last staff of a tune to fill the whole
                  line even though it may be underfull (default: 0)
 
        stretchstaff boolean
                  If true, stretch all underfull staves to fill the whole  line
                  (default: 1)
 
        subtitlefont font [encoding] size
                  Set  the font for subtitles (second and subsequent ‘T:’ head‐
                  ers in a tune) to font with size size  (default:  Times-Roman
                  16)
 
        subtitlespace length
                  Set  the  vertical  space before subtitles (second and subse‐
                  quent ‘T:’ headers in a tune) to length (default: 0.1cm).
 
        sysstaffsep length
                  Set the vertical system interstaff space to length  (default:
                  36pt).
 
        tempofont font [encoding] size
                  Set  the  font for tempo (metronome) indications to font with
                  size size (default: Times-Bold 15)
 
        textfont font [encoding] size
                  Set the text font to font with  size  size  (default:  Times-
                  Roman 16)
 
        textoption int
                  Set  the default text option to int.  This option is used for
                  text between %%begintext and %%endtext.  int may  be  a  key‐
                  word; see begintext for values.
 
        textspace length
                  Set the vertical space before text blocks to length (default:
                  0.5cm).
 
        timewarn boolean
                  If true, a cautionary time signature is added to the  end  of
                  the  line  before  if  a  time signature change occurs at the
                  beginning of a line of music (default: 0).
 
        titlecaps boolean
                  If true, output the tune title in uppercase letters (default:
                  0)
 
        titlefont font [encoding] size
                  Set  the  title  font to font with size size (default: Times-
                  Roman 20)
 
        titleformat text
                  Defines the format of the tune title. This  format  overrides
                  the  standard  way  the  tune  title  is displayed. text is a
                  sequence of letters, numbers, and commas. A letter stands for
                  an  ABC  header (possible values include A, B, C, D, H, N, O,
                  P, R, S, T, X, and Z) and can optionally  be  followed  by  a
                  number.  This  number  may be 0 (to center the header), 1 (to
                  display it flush-right), or -1 (to display it flush-left); if
                  no  number is given the default is 0. A comma causes the next
                  field(s) to be displayed farther down the page.  Unrecognized
                  characters will be ignored. As an example, "%%titleformat T-1
                  T1 T1, R0 C1 A1" will display the first title  header  flush-
                  left,  the second and third titles (if any) flush-right, then
                  the rhythm centered and a little bit lower, and the  composer
                  and area on the right.
 
        titleleft boolean
                  If  true,  output  the tune title flush left (instead of cen‐
                  tered) (default: 0)
 
        titlespace length
                  Set the vertical  space  before  the  tune  title  to  length
                  (default: 0.2cm).
 
        topmargin length
                  Set the top margin to length (default: 1cm)
 
        topspace length
                  Set  the  vertical  space  at  the  top  of  a tune to length
                  (default: 0.8cm)
 
        tuplets when what value
                  Define how to draw tuplets.  The when parameter can be 0  (to
                  decide  automatically  whether to draw a slur or bracket over
                  the tuplet), 1 (to never draw one) or 2 (to always draw one).
                  The what parameter defines what to draw: 0 means a bracket, 1
                  a slur; 2 extends beams across rests  (does  not  work  yet).
                  The  value  parameter  defines  how to annotate the tuplet: 0
                  means to write a simple number (p), 1 writes nothing,  and  2
                  writes a ratio (p:q).
 
        vocalabove boolean
                  If  true, output lyrics above the staff (instead of below it)
                  (default: 0.8cm)
 
        vocalfont font [encoding] size
                  Set the font for lyrics inside a tune to font with size  size
                  (default: Times-Bold 13)
 
        vocalspace length
                  Set  the  vertical  space  between  a staff and its lyrics to
                  length (default: 23pt)
 
        voicefont font [encoding] size
                  Set the font for voice names (default: Times-Bold 13).
 
        withxrefs boolean
                  If true, print the number from the ‘X:’ header  in  the  tune
                  title (default: 0; command line: -x, +x)
 
        wordsfont font [encoding] size
                  Set  the  font  for  lyrics at the end of a tune to font with
                  size size (default: Times-Roman 16)
 
        wordsspace length
                  Set the vertical  space  before  the  end-of-tune  lyrics  to
                  length (default: 0.5cm)
 
        writehistory boolean
                  If  true,  output  notes  and history (‘N:’ and ‘H:’ headers)
                  (default: 0; command line: -n, +n)
 
        The following formatting parameters can only occur inside tunes and not
        in a format file:
 
        %%begintext [mode]
                  Start  printing  a  free-form  text.  The  text to be printed
                  appears on the subsequent lines of the the input file up to a
                  line containing %%endtext.  The text lines may start with %%.
 
                  The parameter may be:
 
                  obeylines Line breaks in the input file are kept (default)
 
                  align or justify
                            Lines are justified
 
                  ragged or fill
                            Line breaks are ignored but output  is  left-justi‐
                            fied
 
                  center    Lines are centered
 
                  skip      The text lines are not printed at all
 
        %%center text
                  Print one line of centered text
 
        %%EPS filename
                  Include filename as an EPS file
 
        %%endtext Finish a block of free text started by %%begintext
 
        %%multicol command
                  Define multicolumn printing. command may be:
 
                  start     Save  the  current  vertical  position and left and
                            right margins. These margins may then be changed to
                            print music or text.
 
                  new       Reset  the  vertical  position  to the place of the
                            previous start and restore the left and right  mar‐
                            gins.  These  can  then be changed again to display
                            another column.
 
                  end       Restore the left and right margins  and  skip  down
                            the page to a ‘safe place’.
 
        %%newpage [int]
                  Start  a  new  page,  restarting  page  numbering from int if
                  applicable.
 
        %%repbra int
                  Repetition brackets are normally displayed as  written  in  a
                  voice. %%repbra 0 suppresses them for the current voice.
 
        %%sep [h1 h2 length]
                  Print a separator (line) of length length with vertical space
                  h1 above and h2 below (defaults: h1 and  h2:  0.5cm;  length:
                  3cm)
 
        %%setbarnb int
                  Set  the measure number to int.  When not inside a tune body,
                  this is equivalent to %%measurefirst.
 
        %%staff num
                  Put the following material on  staff  num.  This  will  lead,
                  e.g.,  to beams between notes in different staves. Useful for
                  keyboard music; see, for example, sample4.abc.
 
        %%staffbreak length
                  Leave a space of length in the current staff.  If  length  is
                  greater  than  0.5cm,  the left side of the staff (system) is
                  redrawn. In a multi-voice tune, a staff break must be  speci‐
                  fied in each voice.
 
        %%staves definition
                  See below.
 
        %%text text
                  Output a single line of text.
 
        %%vskip length
                  Leave vertical space of height length
    Clefs
        Clefs can be given in K: and V: headers. The full syntax is
 
        [clef=]type[line][+8|-8] [middle=pitch]
 
        The ‘clef=’ can be omitted when the type is a clef name.
 
        type denotes the clef type. It may be:
 
        A note pitch (G, C, or F)
                  The  pitch  indicates  which  clef  is meant: G is the treble
                  clef, C the alto clef and F the bass clef. It also gives  the
                  name of the note that appears on the clef’s line.
 
        A clef name
                  The available clef names are treble (clef gives the pitch for
                  G), alto or tenor (C), and bass (F)
 
        perc or P In percussion mode, accidentals change the  glyphs  used  for
                  note heads. By default, sharp notes are drawn as ‘x’ and flat
                  notes as circled ‘x’. This may be changed by  redefining  the
                  PostScript functions pshhd and pflhd.
 
        none      No clef will be displayed.
 
        The  line  gives  the number of the line within the staff that the base
        clef will be written on. The default values are 2 for the treble  clef,
        3 for the alto clef, and 4 for the tenor and bass clefs.
 
        The +8 and -8 options draw an 8 above or below the staff, respectively.
        ‘middle=pitch’ (or ‘m=pitch’, for  short)  is  an  alternative  way  of
        defining  the  line  number  of the clef: The pitch indicates what note
        will be displayed on the middle line of the staff.
 
        When no clef is specified, clef changes between bass and treble will be
        inserted automatically.
 
    Multi-voice typesetting
        Multiple voices may be defined within the header or the tune using
 
        V:name definition ...
 
        where  name  is a word consisting of letters and digits only (like vio     
        lin1). In the tune body, the following notes refer to this voice  until
        another V: is encountered. A definition can be one of:
 
        clef=...  See above
 
        name=name or nm=name
                  The  name  will  be  displayed  at the beginning of the first
                  staff. It can contain \n  sequences  which  will  force  line
                  breaks. If it contains whitespace it must be double-quoted.
 
        subname=name or snm=name
                  The  name  will  be  displayed at the beginning of all staves
                  except for the first. It can contain \n sequences which  will
                  force  line breaks. If it contains whitespace it must be dou‐
                  ble-quoted.
 
        merge     The voice goes on the same staff as the previous voice.
 
        up or down
                  Forces the direction of the stems for the voice.
 
        dyn=up or dyn=down or dyn=auto
                  Forces positioning of  dynamic  marks  (above  or  below  the
                  staff) or reverts to automatic positioning (the default)
 
        gstem=up or gstem=down or gstem=auto
                  Forces  the  direction of the stems of grace notes (always up
                  or always down) or  reverts  to  automatic  positioning  (the
                  default)
 
        stem=auto Reverts  to  automatic positioning of note stems (up or down)
                  (the default)
 
        lyrics=up or lyrics=down or lyrics=auto
                  Places lyrics above or below the staff or  reverts  to  auto‐
                  matic positioning (the default)
 
        staffscale=value
                  Sets  the  scale  of the associated staff (default: 1)    All
                  other definitions are ignored.
 
        By default, each voice goes on its own staff. The ‘%%staves definition’
        pseudo-comment  can be used to control staff assignment. The definition
        consists of voice names (from V:) and pairs of parentheses,  braces  or
        brackets.
 
           ·  When  a voice name is not within a pair of special characters, it
              goes on a separate staff.
 
           ·  For voice names enclosed in brackets, a bracket is  displayed  at
              the beginning of each line that joins the staves of the voices in
              question.
 
           ·  For voice names enclosed in braces, all  the  voices  go  on  two
              staves (keyboard score). There can be at most four voices between
              a single pair of braces.
 
           ·  For voice names enclosed in parentheses, all the voices appear on
              a single staff.
 
        The  ‘|’  character  prevents measure bars from being drawn between two
        staves.
 
        If ‘%%staves’ occurs in a tune, all the voices not mentioned  will  not
        be output at all.
 
    Voice overlay
        You can add notes to a staff without introducing a complete extra voice
        by using the ampersand (&).  A single measure can  be  split  into  two
        voices like
 
        |F2A2Bc&F2c2bc|
 
        The (&...&...&) construction allows splitting multiple measures:
 
        |!f!(&GG<G|GG F=E| E2  E(_D/E)|_D D  C      D |C4- |C
             &DC<C|CC_D C|=B,2_B,B,   |_A,A,(G,/A,/)B,|F,4-|F,)zzD=E|
 
        A  double  ampersand  (&&) will allow overlaying more than two lines of
        music but this feature has not yet been implemented.
 
    Lyrics
        Aligned lyrics under a staff are written as a w:  line  directly  below
        the staff line. For example:
 
        edc2 edc2|
        w:Three blind mice, three blind mice
 
        Each  word  in the w: line (delimited by blanks) is associated with one
        note, in sequence. The following special symbols modify this behaviour:
 
        *         Skips one note.
 
        -         Splits  a  word  into two syllables which are associated with
                  two adjacent notes. A ‘-’ is drawn between them.
 
        |         Advances to the next bar line
 
        ~         Is output as a space, but unites two  words  so  they  appear
                  under a single note.
 
        _         Draws a thin underscore from the previous note to the next.
 
        To  include  more  than  one  line of lyrics, use multiple w: lines. To
        include hyphens without splitting a word over multiple notes, use -.
 
        If a word starts with a digit, this is interpreted as a  stanza  number
        and outdented a bit to the left.
 
    Slurs and ties
        The  direction of slurs and ties may be controlled using the (, and (     ,
        and -, and -     , constructions.
 
    Microtone pitches
        Microtone pitches are indicated by a fraction after an  accidental,  as
        in 3/4c. When omitted, the numerator defaultes to 1 and the denominator
        to 2 (so /c is the same as 1/2c). The numerator and denominator  values
        may not exceed 256. There is built-in support for quarter-tone acciden‐
        tals (1/2 and 3/2 sharps and flats); for other values, rendering  func‐
        tions must be defined using %%postscript (see features.txt).
 
    EPS inclusion
        EPS  files may be included inside tunes using the pseudo-comment ‘%%EPS
        file’.
        The original documentation can be found  in  files  features.txt,  for     
        mat.txt,   and   options.txt,   which   on   a  Debian  system  are  in
        /usr/share/doc/abcm2ps.
 

AUTHOR

        This manual page was written by Anselm Lingnau <lingnau@debian.org> for
        the  Debian  system (but may be used by others).  Permission is granted
        to copy, distribute and/or modify this document as long as  its  origin
        is not misrepresented.
 
ABCM2PS(1)
 

Sections

What does Ubuntu mean?
Ubuntu is an African word meaning 'Humanity to others', or 'I am what I am because of who we all are'. The Ubuntu distribution brings the spirit of Ubuntu to the software world.