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NAME

        asa - interpret carriage-control characters
 

SYNOPSIS

        asa [ file ... ]
 

DESCRIPTION

        The asa utility shall write its input files to standard output, mapping
        carriage-control characters from the text files to line-printer control
        sequences in an implementation-defined manner.
 
        The  first character of every line shall be removed from the input, and
        the following actions are performed.
 
        If the character removed is:
 
        <space>
               The rest of the line is output without change.
 
        0      A <newline> is output, then the rest of the input line.
 
        1      One or more implementation-defined  characters  that  causes  an
               advance  to  the next page shall be output, followed by the rest
               of the input line.
 
        +      The <newline> of the previous line shall be replaced with one or
               more  implementation-defined  characters that causes printing to
               return to column position 1, followed by the rest of  the  input
               line.  If  the      +      is the first character in the input, it shall
               be equivalent to <space>.
 
        The action of the asa utility  is  unspecified  upon  encountering  any
        character  other  than  those  listed above as the first character in a
        line.
 

OPTIONS

        None.
 

OPERANDS

        file   A pathname of a text file used for input. If  no  file  operands
               are specified, the standard input shall be used.
 

STDIN

        The  standard  input  shall be used only if no file operands are speci‐
        fied; see the INPUT FILES section.
        The input files shall be text files.
        The following environment variables shall affect the execution of asa:
 
        LANG   Provide a default value for the  internationalization  variables
               that  are  unset  or  null.  (See the Base Definitions volume of
               IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, Section  8.2,  Internationalization  Vari‐
               ables  for the precedence of internationalization variables used
               to determine the values of locale categories.)
 
        LC_ALL If set to a non-empty string value, override the values  of  all
               the other internationalization variables.
 
        LC_CTYPE
               Determine  the  locale  for  the  interpretation of sequences of
               bytes of text data as characters (for  example,  single-byte  as
               opposed  to multi-byte characters in arguments and input files).
 
        LC_MESSAGES
               Determine the locale that should be used to  affect  the  format
               and contents of diagnostic messages written to standard error.
 
        NLSPATH
               Determine the location of message catalogs for the processing of
               LC_MESSAGES .
        Default.
 

STDOUT

        The standard output shall be the text from the input file  modified  as
        described in the DESCRIPTION section.
 

STDERR

        None.
        None.
        None.
        The following exit values shall be returned:
 
         0     All input files were output successfully.
 
        >0     An error occurred.
        Default.
 
        The following sections are informative.
        None.
 

EXAMPLES

         1. The following command:
 
            asa file
 
        permits  the  viewing of file (created by a program using FORTRAN-style
        carriage-control characters) on a terminal.
 
         2. The following command:
 
            a.out | asa | lp
 
        formats the FORTRAN output of a.out and directs it to the printer.
 

RATIONALE

        The asa utility is needed to map "standard" FORTRAN 77  output  into  a
        form  acceptable to contemporary printers. Usually, asa is used to pipe
        data to the lp utility; see lp.
 
        This utility is generally used only by FORTRAN programs.  The  standard
        developers decided to retain asa to avoid breaking the historical large
        base of FORTRAN applications that put  carriage-control  characters  in
        their  output  files. There is no requirement that a system have a FOR‐
        TRAN compiler in order to run applications that need asa.
 
        Historical implementations have used an ASCII <form-feed>  in  response
        to a 1 and an ASCII <carriage-return> in response to a      +      . It is sug‐
        gested that implementations treat characters other than 0, 1,  and       +     
        as  <space>  in  the  absence of any compelling reason to do otherwise.
        However, the action is listed  here  as  "unspecified",  permitting  an
        implementation to provide extensions to access fast multiple-line slew‐
        ing and channel seeking in a non-portable manner.
        None.
        fort77 , lp
 

COPYRIGHT

        Portions of this text are reprinted and reproduced in  electronic  form
        from IEEE Std 1003.1, 2003 Edition, Standard for Information Technology
        -- Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX),  The  Open  Group  Base
        Specifications  Issue  6,  Copyright  (C) 2001-2003 by the Institute of
        Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc and The Open  Group.  In  the
        event of any discrepancy between this version and the original IEEE and
        The Open Group Standard, the original IEEE and The Open Group  Standard
        is  the  referee document. The original Standard can be obtained online
http://www.opengroup.org/unix/online.html .
 

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