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Provided by: libdatetime-perl_0.35-1_i386

 

NAME

        DateTime - A date and time object
 

SYNOPSIS

          use DateTime;
 
          $dt = DateTime->new( year   => 1964,
                               month  => 10,
                               day    => 16,
                               hour   => 16,
                               minute => 12,
                               second => 47,
                               nanosecond => 500000000,
                               time_zone => ’Asia/Taipei’,
                             );
 
          $dt = DateTime->from_epoch( epoch => $epoch );
          $dt = DateTime->now; # same as ( epoch => time() )
 
          $year   = $dt->year;
          $month  = $dt->month;          # 1-12 - also mon
 
          $day    = $dt->day;            # 1-31 - also day_of_month, mday
 
          $dow    = $dt->day_of_week;    # 1-7 (Monday is 1) - also dow, wday
 
          $hour   = $dt->hour;           # 0-23
          $minute = $dt->minute;         # 0-59 - also min
 
          $second = $dt->second;         # 0-61 (leap seconds!) - also sec
 
          $doy    = $dt->day_of_year;    # 1-366 (leap years) - also doy
 
          $doq    = $dt->day_of_quarter; # 1.. - also doq
 
          $qtr    = $dt->quarter;        # 1-4
 
          # all of the start-at-1 methods above have correponding start-at-0
          # methods, such as $dt->day_of_month_0, $dt->month_0 and so on
 
          $ymd    = $dt->ymd;           # 2002-12-06
          $ymd    = $dt->ymd(’/’);      # 2002/12/06 - also date
 
          $mdy    = $dt->mdy;           # 12-06-2002
          $mdy    = $dt->mdy(’/’);      # 12/06/2002
 
          $dmy    = $dt->dmy;           # 06-12-2002
          $dmy    = $dt->dmy(’/’);      # 06/12/2002
 
          $hms    = $dt->hms;           # 14:02:29
          $hms    = $dt->hms(’!’);      # 14!02!29 - also time
 
          $is_leap  = $dt->is_leap_year;
 
          # these are localizable, see Locales section
          $month_name  = $dt->month_name; # January, February, ...
          $month_abbr  = $dt->month_abbr; # Jan, Feb, ...
          $day_name    = $dt->day_name;   # Monday, Tuesday, ...
          $day_abbr    = $dt->day_abbr;   # Mon, Tue, ...
 
          $epoch_time  = $dt->epoch;
          # may return undef if the datetime is outside the range that is
          # representable by your OS’s epoch system.
 
          $dt2 = $dt + $duration_object;
 
          $dt3 = $dt - $duration_object;
 
          $duration_object = $dt - $dt2;
 
          $dt->set( year => 1882 );
 
          $dt->set_time_zone( ’America/Chicago’ );
 
          $dt->set_formatter( $formatter );
 

DESCRIPTION

        DateTime is a class for the representation of date/time combinations,
        and is part of the Perl DateTime project.  For details on this project
        please see <http://datetime.perl.org/>.  The DateTime site has a FAQ
        which may help answer many "how do I do X?" questions.  The FAQ is at
        <http://datetime.perl.org/faq.html>.
 
        It represents the Gregorian calendar, extended backwards in time before
        its creation (in 1582).  This is sometimes known as the "proleptic Gre‐
        gorian calendar".  In this calendar, the first day of the calendar (the
        epoch), is the first day of year 1, which corresponds to the date which
        was (incorrectly) believed to be the birth of Jesus Christ.
 
        The calendar represented does have a year 0, and in that way differs
        from how dates are often written using "BCE/CE" or "BC/AD".
 
        For infinite datetimes, please see the DateTime::Infinite module.
 

USAGE

        0-based Versus 1-based Numbers
 
        The DateTime.pm module follows a simple consistent logic for determin‐
        ing whether or not a given number is 0-based or 1-based.
 
        Month, day of month, day of week, and day of year are 1-based.  Any
        method that is 1-based also has an equivalent 0-based method ending in
        "_0".  So for example, this class provides both "day_of_week()" and
        "day_of_week_0()" methods.
 
        The "day_of_week_0()" method still treats Monday as the first day of
        the week.
 
        All time-related numbers such as hour, minute, and second are 0-based.
 
        Years are neither, as they can be both positive or negative, unlike any
        other datetime component.  There is a year 0.
 
        There is no "quarter_0()" method.
 
        Error Handling
 
        Some errors may cause this module to die with an error string.  This
        can only happen when calling constructor methods, methods that change
        the object, such as "set()", or methods that take parameters.  Methods
        that retrieve information about the object, such as "year()" or
        "epoch()", will never die.
 
        Locales
 
        All the object methods which return names or abbreviations return data
        based on a locale.  This is done by setting the locale when construct‐
        ing a DateTime object.  There is also a "DefaultLocale()" class method
        which may be used to set the default locale for all DateTime objects
        created.  If this is not set, then "en_US" is used.
 
        Some locales may return data as Unicode.  When using Perl 5.6.0 or
        greater, this will be a native Perl Unicode string.  When using older
        Perls, this will be a sequence of bytes representing the Unicode char‐
        acter.
 
        Floating DateTimes
 
        The default time zone for new DateTime objects, except where stated
        otherwise, is the "floating" time zone.  This concept comes from the
        iCal standard.  A floating datetime is one which is not anchored to any
        particular time zone.  In addition, floating datetimes do not include
        leap seconds, since we cannot apply them without knowing the datetime’s
        time zone.
 
        The results of date math and comparison between a floating datetime and
        one with a real time zone are not really valid, because one includes
        leap seconds and the other does not.  Similarly, the results of date‐
        time math between two floating datetimes and two datetimes with time
        zones are not really comparable.
 
        If you are planning to use any objects with a real time zone, it is
        strongly recommended that you do not mix these with floating datetimes.
 
        Math
 
        If you are going to be using doing date math, please read the section
        How Datetime Math is Done.
 
        Time Zone Warning
 
        Do not try to use named time zones (like "America/Chicago") with dates
        very far in the future (thousands of years). The current implementation
        of "DateTime::TimeZone" will use a huge amount of memory calculating
        all the DST changes from now until the future date. Use UTC or the
        floating time zone and you will be safe.
 
        Methods
 
        Constructors
 
        All constructors can die when invalid parameters are given.
 
        * new( ... )
            This class method accepts parameters for each date and time compo‐
            nent: "year", "month", "day", "hour", "minute", "second", "nanosec‐
            ond".  It also accepts "locale", "time_zone", and "formatter"
            parameters.
 
              my $dt = DateTime->new( year   => 1066,
                                      month  => 10,
                                      day    => 25,
                                      hour   => 7,
                                      minute => 15,
                                      second => 47,
                                      nanosecond => 500000000,
                                      time_zone  => ’America/Chicago’,
                                    );
 
            DateTime validates the "month", "day", "hour", "minute", and "sec‐
            ond", and "nanosecond" parameters.  The valid values for these
            parameters are:
 
            * month 1-12
 
            * day   1-31, and it must be within the valid range of days for the
                    specified month
 
            * hour  0-23
 
            * minute
                    0-59
 
            * second
                    0-61 (to allow for leap seconds).  Values of 60 or 61 are
                    only allowed when they match actual leap seconds.
 
            * nanosecond
                    >= 0
 
        Invalid parameter types (like an array reference) will cause the con‐
        structor to die.
 
        The value for seconds may be from 0 to 61, to account for leap seconds.
        If you give a value greater than 59, DateTime does check to see that it
        really matches a valid leap second.
 
        All of the parameters are optional except for "year".  The "month" and
        "day" parameters both default to 1, while the "hour", "minute", "sec‐
        ond", and "nanosecond" parameters all default to 0.
 
        The "locale" parameter should be a string matching one of the valid
        locales, or a "DateTime::Locale" object.  See the DateTime::Locale doc‐
        umentation for details.
 
        The time_zone parameter can be either a scalar or a "DateTime::Time‐
        Zone" object.  A string will simply be passed to the "DateTime::Time‐
        Zone->new" method as its "name" parameter.  This string may be an Olson
        DB time zone name ("America/Chicago"), an offset string ("+0630"), or
        the words "floating" or "local".  See the "DateTime::TimeZone" documen‐
        tation for more details.
 
        The default time zone is "floating".
 
        The "formatter" can be either a scalar or an object, but the class
        specified by the scalar or the object must implement a "format_date‐
        time()" method.
 
        Ambiguous Local Times
 
        Because of Daylight Saving Time, it is possible to specify a local time
        that is ambiguous.  For example, in the US in 2003, the transition from
        to saving to standard time occurred on October 26, at 02:00:00 local
        time.  The local clock changed from 01:59:59 (saving time) to 01:00:00
        (standard time).  This means that the hour from 01:00:00 through
        01:59:59 actually occurs twice, though the UTC time continues to move
        forward.
 
        If you specify an ambiguous time, then the latest UTC time is always
        used, in effect always choosing standard time.  In this case, you can
        simply subtract an hour to the object in order to move to saving time,
        for example:
 
          # This object represent 01:30:00 standard time
          my $dt = DateTime->new( year   => 2003,
                                  month  => 10,
                                  day    => 26,
                                  hour   => 1,
                                  minute => 30,
                                  second => 0,
                                  time_zone => ’America/Chicago’,
                                );
 
          print $dt->hms;  # prints 01:30:00
 
          # Now the object represent 01:30:00 saving time
          $dt->subtract( hours => 1 );
 
          print $dt->hms;  # still prints 01:30:00
 
        Alternately, you could create the object with the UTC time zone, and
        then call the "set_time_zone()" method to change the time zone.  This
        is a good way to ensure that the time is not ambiguous.
 
        Invalid Local Times
 
        Another problem introduced by Daylight Saving Time is that certain
        local times just do not exist.  For example, in the US in 2003, the
        transition from standard to saving time occurred on April 6, at the
        change to 2:00:00 local time.  The local clock changes from 01:59:59
        (standard time) to 03:00:00 (saving time).  This means that there is no
        02:00:00 through 02:59:59 on April 6!
 
        Attempting to create an invalid time currently causes a fatal error.
        This may change in future version of this module.
 
        * from_epoch( epoch => $epoch, ... )
            This class method can be used to construct a new DateTime object
            from an epoch time instead of components.  Just as with the "new()"
            method, it accepts "time_zone", "locale", and "formatter" parame‐
            ters.
 
            If the epoch value is not an integer, the part after the decimal
            will be converted to nanoseconds.  This is done in order to be com‐
            patible with "Time::HiRes".  If the floating portion extends past 9
            decimal places, it will be truncated to nine, so that 1.1234567891
            will become 1 second and 123,456,789 nanoseconds.
 
            By default, the returned object will be in the UTC time zone.
 
        * now( ... )
            This class method is equivalent to calling "from_epoch()" with the
            value returned from Perl’s "time()" function.  Just as with the
            "new()" method, it accepts "time_zone" and "locale" parameters.
 
            By default, the returned object will be in the UTC time zone.
 
        * today( ... )
            This class method is equivalent to:
 
              DateTime->now->truncate( to => ’day’ );
 
        * from_object( object => $object, ... )
            This class method can be used to construct a new DateTime object
            from any object that implements the "utc_rd_values()" method.  All
            "DateTime::Calendar" modules must implement this method in order to
            provide cross-calendar compatibility.  This method accepts a
            "locale" and "formatter" parameter
 
            If the object passed to this method has a "time_zone()" method,
            that is used to set the time zone of the newly created "Date‐
            Time.pm" object.
 
            Otherwise, the returned object will be in the floating time zone.
 
        * last_day_of_month( ... )
            This constructor takes the same arguments as can be given to the
            "new()" method, except for "day".  Additionally, both "year" and
            "month" are required.
 
        * from_day_of_year( ... )
            This constructor takes the same arguments as can be given to the
            "new()" method, except that it does not accept a "month" or "day"
            argument.  Instead, it requires both "year" and "day_of_year".  The
            day of year must be between 1 and 366, and 366 is only allowed for
            leap years.
 
        * clone
            This object method returns a new object that is replica of the
            object upon which the method is called.
 
        "Get" Methods
 
        This class has many methods for retrieving information about an object.
 
        * year
            Returns the year.
 
        * ce_year
            Returns the year according to the BCE/CE numbering system.  The
            year before year 1 in this system is year -1, aka "1 BCE".
 
        * era_name
            Returns the long name of the current era, something like "Before
            Christ".  See the Locales section for more details.
 
        * era_abbr
            Returns the abbreviated name of the current era, something like
            "BC".  See the Locales section for more details.
 
        * christian_era
            Returns a string, either "BC" or "AD", according to the year.
 
        * secular_era
            Returns a string, either "BCE" or "CE", according to the year.
 
        * year_with_era
            Returns a string containing the year immediately followed by its
            era abbreviation.  The year is the absolute value of "ce_year()",
            so that year 1 is "1BC" and year 0 is "1AD".
 
        * year_with_christian_era
            Like "year_with_era()", but uses the christian_era() to get the era
            name.
 
        * year_with_secular_era
            Like "year_with_era()", but uses the secular_era() method to get
            the era name.
 
        * month
            Returns the month of the year, from 1..12.
 
        * month_name
            Returns the name of the current month.  See the Locales section for
            more details.
 
        * month_abbr
            Returns the abbreviated name of the current month.  See the Locales
            section for more details.
 
        * day_of_month, day, mday
            Returns the day of the month, from 1..31.
 
        * day_of_week, wday, dow
            Returns the day of the week as a number, from 1..7, with 1 being
            Monday and 7 being Sunday.
 
        * day_name
            Returns the name of the current day of the week.  See the Locales
            section for more details.
 
        * day_abbr
            Returns the abbreviated name of the current day of the week.  See
            the Locales section for more details.
 
        * day_of_year, doy
            Returns the day of the year.
 
        * quarter
            Returns the quarter of the year, from 1..4.
 
        * quarter_name
            Returns the name of the current quarter.  See the Locales section
            for more details.
 
        * quarter_abbr
            Returns the abbreviated name of the current quarter.  See the
            Locales section for more details.
 
        * day_of_quarter, doq
            Returns the day of the quarter.
 
        * weekday_of_month
            Returns a number from 1..5 indicating which week day of the month
            this is.  For example, June 9, 2003 is the second Monday of the
            month, and so this method returns 2 for that day.
 
        * ymd( $optional_separator ), date
        * mdy( $optional_separator )
        * dmy( $optional_separator )
            Each method returns the year, month, and day, in the order indi‐
            cated by the method name.  Years are zero-padded to four digits.
            Months and days are 0-padded to two digits.
 
            By default, the values are separated by a dash (-), but this can be
            overridden by passing a value to the method.
 
        * hour
            Returns the hour of the day, from 0..23.
 
        * hour_1
            Returns the hour of the day, from 1..24.
 
        * hour_12
            Returns the hour of the day, from 1..12.
 
        * hour_12_0
            Returns the hour of the day, from 0..11.
 
        * minute, min
            Returns the minute of the hour, from 0..59.
 
        * second, sec
            Returns the second, from 0..61.  The values 60 and 61 are used for
            leap seconds.
 
        * fractional_second
            Returns the second, as a real number from 0.0 until 61.999999999
 
            The values 60 and 61 are used for leap seconds.
 
        * millisecond
            Returns the fractional part of the second as milliseconds (1E-3
            seconds).
 
            Half a second is 500 milliseconds.
 
        * microsecond
            Returns the fractional part of the second as microseconds (1E-6
            seconds).  This value will be rounded to an integer.
 
            Half a second is 500_000 microseconds.  This value will be rounded
            to an integer.
 
        * nanosecond
            Returns the fractional part of the second as nanoseconds (1E-9 sec‐
            onds).
 
            Half a second is 500_000_000 nanoseconds.
 
        * hms( $optional_separator ), time
            Returns the hour, minute, and second, all zero-padded to two dig‐
            its.  If no separator is specified, a colon (:) is used by default.
 
        * datetime, iso8601
            This method is equivalent to:
 
              $dt->ymd(’-’) . ’T’ . $dt->hms(’:’)
 
        * is_leap_year
            This method returns a true or false indicating whether or not the
            datetime object is in a leap year.
 
        * week
             ($week_year, $week_number) = $dt->week;
 
            Returns information about the calendar week which contains this
            datetime object. The values returned by this method are also avail‐
            able separately through the week_year and week_number methods.
 
            The first week of the year is defined by ISO as the one which con‐
            tains the fourth day of January, which is equivalent to saying that
            it’s the first week to overlap the new year by at least four days.
 
            Typically the week year will be the same as the year that the
            object is in, but dates at the very beginning of a calendar year
            often end up in the last week of the prior year, and similarly, the
            final few days of the year may be placed in the first week of the
            next year.
 
        * week_year
            Returns the year of the week.
 
        * week_number
            Returns the week of the year, from 1..53.
 
        * week_of_month
            The week of the month, from 0..5.  The first week of the month is
            the first week that contains a Thursday.  This is based on the ICU
            definition of week of month, and correlates to the ISO8601 week of
            year definition.  A day in the week before the week with the first
            Thursday will be week 0.
 
        * jd, mjd
            These return the Julian Day and Modified Julian Day, respectively.
            The value returned is a floating point number.  The fractional por‐
            tion of the number represents the time portion of the datetime.
 
        * time_zone
            This returns the "DateTime::TimeZone" object for the datetime
            object.
 
        * offset
            This returns the offset from UTC, in seconds, of the datetime
            object according to the time zone.
 
        * is_dst
            Returns a boolean indicating whether or not the datetime object is
            currently in Daylight Saving Time or not.
 
        * time_zone_long_name
            This is a shortcut for "$dt->time_zone->name".  It’s provided so
            that one can use "%{time_zone_long_name}" as a strftime format
            specifier.
 
        * time_zone_short_name
            This method returns the time zone abbreviation for the current time
            zone, such as "PST" or "GMT".  These names are not definitive, and
            should not be used in any application intended for general use by
            users around the world.
 
        * strftime( $format, ... )
            This method implements functionality similar to the "strftime()"
            method in C.  However, if given multiple format strings, then it
            will return multiple scalars, one for each format string.
 
            See the strftime Specifiers section for a list of all possible for‐
            mat specifiers.
 
            If you give a format specifier that doesn’t exist, then it is sim‐
            ply treated as text.
 
        * epoch
            Return the UTC epoch value for the datetime object.  Internally,
            this is implemented using "Time::Local", which uses the Unix epoch
            even on machines with a different epoch (such as MacOS).  Datetimes
            before the start of the epoch will be returned as a negative num‐
            ber.
 
            This return value from this method is always an integer.
 
            Since the epoch does not account for leap seconds, the epoch time
            for 1972-12-31T23:59:60 (UTC) is exactly the same as that for
            1973-01-01T00:00:00.
 
            Epoch times cannot represent many dates on most platforms, and this
            method may simply return undef in some cases.
 
            Using your system’s epoch time may be error-prone, since epoch
            times have such a limited range on 32-bit machines.  Additionally,
            the fact that different operating systems have different epoch
            beginnings is another source of possible bugs.
 
        * hires_epoch
            Returns the epoch as a floating point number.  The floating point
            portion of the value represents the nanosecond value of the object.
            This method is provided for compatibility with the "Time::HiRes"
            module.
 
        * is_finite, is_infinite
            These methods allow you to distinguish normal datetime objects from
            infinite ones.  Infinite datetime objects are documented in Date‐
            Time::Infinite.
 
        * utc_rd_values
            Returns the current UTC Rata Die days, seconds, and nanoseconds as
            a three element list.  This exists primarily to allow other calen‐
            dar modules to create objects based on the values provided by this
            object.
 
        * local_rd_values
            Returns the current local Rata Die days, seconds, and nanoseconds
            as a three element list.  This exists for the benefit of other mod‐
            ules which might want to use this information for date math, such
            as "DateTime::Event::Recurrence".
 
        * leap_seconds
            Returns the number of leap seconds that have happened up to the
            datetime represented by the object.  For floating datetimes, this
            always returns 0.
 
        * utc_rd_as_seconds
            Returns the current UTC Rata Die days and seconds purely as sec‐
            onds.  This number ignores any fractional seconds stored in the
            object, as well as leap seconds.
 
        * local_rd_as_seconds - deprecated
            Returns the current local Rata Die days and seconds purely as sec‐
            onds.  This number ignores any fractional seconds stored in the
            object, as well as leap seconds.
 
        * locale
            Returns the current locale object.
 
        "Set" Methods
 
        The remaining methods provided by "DateTime.pm", except where otherwise
        specified, return the object itself, thus making method chaining possi‐
        ble. For example:
 
          my $dt = DateTime->now->set_time_zone( ’Australia/Sydney’ );
 
          my $first = DateTime
                        ->last_day_of_month( year => 2003, month => 3 )
                        ->add( days => 1 )
                        ->subtract( seconds => 1 );
 
        * set( .. )
            This method can be used to change the local components of a date
            time, or its locale.  This method accepts any parameter allowed by
            the "new()" method except for "time_zone".  Time zones may be set
            using the "set_time_zone()" method.
 
            This method performs parameters validation just as is done in the
            "new()" method.
 
        * set_year(), set_month(), set_day(), set_hour(), set_minute(),
        set_second(), set_nanosecond(), set_locale()
            These are shortcuts to calling "set()" with a single key.  They all
            take a single parameter.
 
        * truncate( to => ... )
            This method allows you to reset some of the local time components
            in the object to their "zero" values.  The "to" parameter is used
            to specify which values to truncate, and it may be one of "year",
            "month", "week", "day", "hour", "minute", or "second".  For exam‐
            ple, if "month" is specified, then the local day becomes 1, and the
            hour, minute, and second all become 0.
 
            If "week" is given, then the datetime is set to the beginning of
            the week in which it occurs, and the time components are all set to
            0.
 
        * set_time_zone( $tz )
            This method accepts either a time zone object or a string that can
            be passed as the "name" parameter to "DateTime::TimeZone->new()".
            If the new time zone’s offset is different from the old time zone,
            then the local time is adjusted accordingly.
 
            For example:
 
              my $dt = DateTime->new( year => 2000, month => 5, day => 10,
                                      hour => 15, minute => 15,
                                      time_zone => ’America/Los_Angeles’, );
 
              print $dt->hour; # prints 15
 
              $dt->set_time_zone( ’America/Chicago’ );
 
              print $dt->hour; # prints 17
 
            If the old time zone was a floating time zone, then no adjustments
            to the local time are made, except to account for leap seconds.  If
            the new time zone is floating, then the UTC time is adjusted in
            order to leave the local time untouched.
 
            Fans of Tsai Ming-Liang’s films will be happy to know that this
            does work:
 
              my $dt = DateTime->now( time_zone => ’Asia/Taipei’ );
 
              $dt->set_time_zone( ’Europe/Paris’ );
 
            Yes, now we can know "ni3 na4 bian1 ji3dian2?"
 
        * add_duration( $duration_object )
            This method adds a "DateTime::Duration" to the current datetime.
            See the DateTime::Duration docs for more details.
 
        * add( DateTime::Duration->new parameters )
            This method is syntactic sugar around the "add_duration()" method.
            It simply creates a new "DateTime::Duration" object using the
            parameters given, and then calls the "add_duration()" method.
 
        * subtract_duration( $duration_object )
            When given a "DateTime::Duration" object, this method simply calls
            "invert()" on that object and passes that new duration to the
            "add_duration" method.
 
        * subtract( DateTime::Duration->new parameters )
            Like "add()", this is syntactic sugar for the "subtract_duration()"
            method.
 
        * subtract_datetime( $datetime )
            This method returns a new "DateTime::Duration" object representing
            the difference between the two dates.  The duration is relative to
            the object from which $datetime is subtracted.  For example:
 
                2003-03-15 00:00:00.00000000
             -  2003-02-15 00:00:00.00000000
 
             -------------------------------
 
             = 1 month
 
            Note that this duration is not an absolute measure of the amount of
            time between the two datetimes, because the length of a month
            varies,, as well as due to the presence of leap seconds.
 
            The returned duration may have deltas for months, days, minutes,
            seconds, and nanoseconds.
 
        * delta_md( $datetime )
        * delta_days( $datetime )
            Each of these methods returns a new "DateTime::Duration" object
            representing some portion of the difference between two datetimes.
            The "delta_md()" method returns a duration which contains only the
            month and day portions of the duration is represented.  The
            "delta_days()" method returns a duration which contains only days.
 
            The "delta_md" and "delta_days" methods truncate the duration so
            that any fractional portion of a day is ignored.  Both of these
            methods operate on the date portion of a datetime only, and so
            effectively ignore the time zone.
 
            Unlike the subtraction methods, these methods always return a posi     
            tive (or zero) duration.
 
        * delta_ms( $datetime )
            Returns a duration which contains only minutes and seconds.  Any
            day and month differences to minutes are converted to minutes and
            seconds.
 
            Always return a positive (or zero) duration.
 
        * subtract_datetime_absolute( $datetime )
            This method returns a new "DateTime::Duration" object representing
            the difference between the two dates in seconds and nanoseconds.
            This is the only way to accurately measure the absolute amount of
            time between two datetimes, since units larger than a second do not
            represent a fixed number of seconds.
 
        Class Methods
 
        * DefaultLocale( $locale )
            This can be used to specify the default locale to be used when cre‐
            ating DateTime objects.  If unset, then "en_US" is used.
 
        * compare
        * compare_ignore_floating
              $cmp = DateTime->compare( $dt1, $dt2 );
 
              $cmp = DateTime->compare_ignore_floating( $dt1, $dt2 );
 
            Compare two DateTime objects.  The semantics are compatible with
            Perl’s "sort()" function; it returns -1 if $a < $b, 0 if $a == $b,
            1 if $a > $b.
 
            If one of the two DateTime objects has a floating time zone, it
            will first be converted to the time zone of the other object.  This
            is what you want most of the time, but it can lead to inconsistent
            results when you compare a number of DateTime objects, some of
            which are floating, and some of which are in other time zones.
 
            If you want to have consistent results (because you want to sort a
            number of objects, for example), you can use the "com‐
            pare_ignore_floating()" method:
 
              @dates = sort { DateTime->compare_ignore_floating($a, $b) } @dates;
 
            In this case, objects with a floating time zone will be sorted as
            if they were UTC times.
 
            Since DateTime objects overload comparison operators, this:
 
              @dates = sort @dates;
 
            is equivalent to this:
 
              @dates = sort { DateTime->compare($a, $b) } @dates;
 
            DateTime objects can be compared to any other calendar class that
            implements the "utc_rd_values()" method.
 
        How Datetime Math is Done
 
        It’s important to have some understanding of how datetime math is
        implemented in order to effectively use this module and "Date‐
        Time::Duration".
 
        Making Things Simple
 
        If you want to simplify your life and not have to think too hard about
        the nitty-gritty of datetime math, I have several recommendations:
 
        * use the floating time zone
            If you do not care about time zones or leap seconds, use the
            "floating" timezone:
 
              my $dt = DateTime->now( time_zone => ’floating’ );
 
            Math done on two objects in the floating time zone produces very
            predictable results.
 
        * use UTC for all calculations
            If you do care about time zones (particularly DST) or leap seconds,
            try to use non-UTC time zones for presentation and user input only.
            Convert to UTC immediately and convert back to the local time zone
            for presentation:
 
              my $dt = DateTime->new( %user_input, time_zone => $user_tz );
              $dt->set_time_zone(’UTC’);
 
              # do various operations - store it, retrieve it, add, subtract, etc.
 
              $dt->set_time_zone($user_tz);
              print $dt->datetime;
 
        * math on non-UTC time zones
            If you need to do date math on objects with non-UTC time zones,
            please read the caveats below carefully.  The results "DateTime.pm"
            are predictable and correct, and mostly intuitive, but datetime
            math gets very ugly when time zones are involved, and there are a
            few strange corner cases involving subtraction of two datetimes
            across a DST change.
 
            If you can always use the floating or UTC time zones, you can skip
            ahead to Leap Seconds and Date Math
 
        * date vs datetime math
            If you only care about the date (calendar) portion of a datetime,
            you should use either "delta_md()" or "delta_days()", not "sub‐
            tract_datetime()".  This will give predictable, unsurprising
            results, free from DST-related complications.
 
        * subtract_datetime() and add_duration()
            You must convert your datetime objects to the UTC time zone before
            doing date math if you want to make sure that the following formu‐
            las are always true:
 
              $dt2 - $dt1 = $dur
              $dt1 + $dur = $dt2
              $dt2 - $dur = $dt1
 
            Note that using "delta_days" ensures that this formula always
            works, regardless of the timezone of the objects involved, as does
            using "subtract_datetime_absolute()".  Anything may sometimes be
            non-reversible.
 
        Adding a Duration to a Datetime
 
        The parts of a duration can be broken down into five parts.  These are
        months, days, minutes, seconds, and nanoseconds.  Adding one month to a
        date is different than adding 4 weeks or 28, 29, 30, or 31 days.  Simi‐
        larly, due to DST and leap seconds, adding a day can be different than
        adding 86,400 seconds, and adding a minute is not exactly the same as
        60 seconds.
 
        We cannot convert between these units, except for seconds and nanosec‐
        onds, because there is no fixed conversion between the two units,
        because of things like leap seconds, DST changes, etc.
 
        "DateTime.pm" always adds (or subtracts) days, then months, minutes,
        and then seconds and nanoseconds.  If there are any boundary overflows,
        these are normalized at each step.  For the days and months (the calen‐
        dar) the local (not UTC) values are used.  For minutes and seconds, the
        local values are used.  This generally just works.
 
        This means that adding one month and one day to February 28, 2003 will
        produce the date April 1, 2003, not March 29, 2003.
 
          my $dt = DateTime->new( year => 2003, month => 2, day => 28 );
 
          $dt->add( months => 1, days => 1 );
 
          # 2003-04-01 - the result
 
        On the other hand, if we add months first, and then separately add
        days, we end up with March 29, 2003:
 
          $dt->add( months => 1 )->add( days => 1 );
 
          # 2003-03-29
 
        We see similar strangeness when math crosses a DST boundary:
 
          my $dt = DateTime->new( year => 2003, month => 4, day => 5,
                                  hour => 1, minute => 58,
                                  time_zone => "America/Chicago",
                                );
 
          $dt->add( days => 1, minutes => 3 );
          # 2003-04-06 02:01:00
 
          $dt->add( minutes => 3 )->( days => 1 );
          # 2003-04-06 03:01:00
 
        Note that if you converted the datetime object to UTC first you would
        get predictable results.
 
        If you want to know how many seconds a duration object represents, you
        have to add it to a datetime to find out, so you could do:
 
         my $now = DateTime->now( time_zone => ’UTC’ );
         my $later = $now->clone->add_duration($duration);
 
         my $seconds_dur = $later->subtract_datetime_absolute($now);
 
        This returns a duration which only contains seconds and nanoseconds.
 
        If we were add the duration to a different datetime object we might get
        a different number of seconds.
 
        If you need to do lots of work with durations, take a look at Rick
        Measham’s "DateTime::Format::Duration" module, which lets you present
        information from durations in many useful ways.
 
        There are other subtract/delta methods in DateTime.pm to generate dif‐
        ferent types of durations.  These methods are "subtract_datetime()",
        "subtract_datetime_absolute()", "delta_md()", "delta_days()", and
        "delta_ms()".
 
        Datetime Subtraction
 
        Date subtraction is done solely based on the two object’s local date‐
        times, with one exception to handle DST changes.  Also, if the two
        datetime objects are in different time zones, one of them is converted
        to the other’s time zone first before subtraction.  This is best
        explained through examples:
 
        The first of these probably makes the most sense:
 
            my $dt1 = DateTime->new( year => 2003, month => 5, day => 6,
                                     time_zone => ’America/Chicago’,
                                   );
            # not DST
 
            my $dt2 = DateTime->new( year => 2003, month => 11, day => 6,
                                     time_zone => ’America/Chicago’,
                                   );
            # is DST
 
            my $dur = $dt2->subtract_datetime($dt1);
            # 6 months
 
        Nice and simple.
 
        This one is a little trickier, but still fairly logical:
 
            my $dt1 = DateTime->new( year => 2003, month => 4, day => 5,
                                     hour => 1, minute => 58,
                                     time_zone => "America/Chicago",
                                   );
            # is DST
 
            my $dt2 = DateTime->new( year => 2003, month => 4, day => 7,
                                     hour => 2, minute => 1,
                                     time_zone => "America/Chicago",
                                   );
            # not DST
 
            my $dur = $dt2->subtract_datetime($dt1);
            # 2 days and 3 minutes
 
        Which contradicts the result this one gives, even though they both make
        sense:
 
            my $dt1 = DateTime->new( year => 2003, month => 4, day => 5,
                                     hour => 1, minute => 58,
                                     time_zone => "America/Chicago",
                                   );
            # is DST
 
            my $dt2 = DateTime->new( year => 2003, month => 4, day => 6,
                                     hour => 3, minute => 1,
                                     time_zone => "America/Chicago",
                                   );
            # not DST
 
            my $dur = $dt2->subtract_datetime($dt1);
            # 1 day and 3 minutes
 
        This last example illustrates the "DST" exception mentioned earlier.
        The exception accounts for the fact 2003-04-06 only lasts 23 hours.
 
        And finally:
 
            my $dt2 = DateTime->new( year => 2003, month => 10, day => 26,
                                     hour => 1,
                                     time_zone => ’America/Chicago’,
                                   );
 
            my $dt1 = $dt2->clone->subtract( hours => 1 );
 
            my $dur = $dt2->subtract_datetime($dt1);
            # 60 minutes
 
        This seems obvious until you realize that subtracting 60 minutes from
        $dt2 in the above example still leaves the clock time at "01:00:00".
        This time we are accounting for a 25 hour day.
 
        Reversibility
 
        Date math operations are not always reversible.  This is because of the
        way that addition operations are ordered.  As was discussed earlier,
        adding 1 day and 3 minutes in one call to "add()" is not the same as
        first adding 3 minutes and 1 day in two separate calls.
 
        If we take a duration returned from "subtract_datetime()" and then try
        to add or subtract that duration from one of the datetimes we just
        used, we sometimes get interesting results:
 
          my $dt1 = DateTime->new( year => 2003, month => 4, day => 5,
                                   hour => 1, minute => 58,
                                   time_zone => "America/Chicago",
                                 );
 
          my $dt2 = DateTime->new( year => 2003, month => 4, day => 6,
                                   hour => 3, minute => 1,
                                   time_zone => "America/Chicago",
                                 );
 
          my $dur = $dt2->subtract_datetime($dt1);
          # 1 day and 3 minutes
 
          $dt1->add_duration($dur);
          # gives us $dt2
 
          $dt2->subtract_duration($dur);
          # gives us 2003-04-05 02:58:00 - 1 hour later than $dt1
 
        The "subtract_dauration()" operation gives us a (perhaps) unexpected
        answer because it first subtracts one day to get 2003-04-05T03:01:00
        and then subtracts 3 minutes to get the final result.
 
        If we explicitly reverse the order we can get the original value of
        $dt1. This can be facilitated by "DateTime::Duration"’s "calendar_dura‐
        tion()" and "clock_duration()" methods:
 
          $dt2->subtract_duration( $dur->clock_duration )
              ->subtract_duration( $dur->calendar_duration );
 
        Leap Seconds and Date Math
 
        The presence of leap seconds can cause even more anomalies in date
        math.  For example, the following is a legal datetime:
 
          my $dt = DateTime->new( year => 1972, month => 12, day => 31,
                                  hour => 23, minute => 59, second => 60,
                                  time_zone => ’UTC’ );
 
        If we do the following:
 
         $dt->add( months => 1 );
 
        Then the datetime is now "1973-02-01 00:00:00", because there is no
        23:59:60 on 1973-01-31.
 
        Leap seconds also force us to distinguish between minutes and seconds
        during date math.  Given the following datetime:
 
          my $dt = DateTime->new( year => 1972, month => 12, day => 31,
                                  hour => 23, minute => 59, second => 30,
                                  time_zone => ’UTC’ );
 
        we will get different results when adding 1 minute than we get if we
        add 60 seconds.  This is because in this case, the last minute of the
        day, beginning at 23:59:00, actually contains 61 seconds.
 
        Here are the results we get:
 
          # 1972-12-31 23:59:30 - our starting datetime
 
          $dt->clone->add( minutes => 1 );
          # 1973-01-01 00:00:30 - one minute later
 
          $dt->clone->add( seconds => 60 );
          # 1973-01-01 00:00:29 - 60 seconds later
 
          $dt->clone->add( seconds => 61 );
          # 1973-01-01 00:00:30 - 61 seconds later
 
        Local vs. UTC and 24 hours vs. 1 day
 
        When math crosses a daylight saving boundary, a single day may have
        more or less than 24 hours.
 
        For example, if you do this:
 
          my $dt = DateTime->new( year => 2003, month => 4, day => 5,
                                  hour => 2,
                                  time_zone => ’America/Chicago’,
                                );
          $dt->add( days => 1 );
 
        then you will produce an invalid local time, and therefore an exception
        will be thrown.
 
        However, this works:
 
          my $dt = DateTime->new( year => 2003, month => 4, day => 5,
                                  hour => 2,
                                  time_zone => ’America/Chicago’,
                                );
          $dt->add( hours => 24 );
 
        and produces a datetime with the local time of "03:00".
 
        If all this makes your head hurt, there is a simple alternative.  Just
        convert your datetime object to the "UTC" time zone before doing date
        math on it, and switch it back to the local time zone afterwards.  This
        avoids the possibility of having date math throw an exception, and
        makes sure that 1 day equals 24 hours.  Of course, this may not always
        be desirable, so caveat user!
 
        Overloading
 
        This module explicitly overloads the addition (+), subtraction (-),
        string and numeric comparison operators.  This means that the following
        all do sensible things:
 
          my $new_dt = $dt + $duration_obj;
 
          my $new_dt = $dt - $duration_obj;
 
          my $duration_obj = $dt - $new_dt;
 
          foreach my $dt ( sort @dts ) { ... }
 
        Additionally, the fallback parameter is set to true, so other derivable
        operators (+=, -=, etc.) will work properly.  Do not expect increment
        (++) or decrement (--) to do anything useful.
 
        The module also overloads stringification to use the "iso8601()"
        method.
 
        Formatters And Stringification
 
        You can optionally specify a "formatter", which is usually a Date‐
        Time::Format::* object/class, to control how the stringification of the
        DateTime object.
 
        Any of the constructor methods can accept a formatter argument:
 
          my $formatter = DateTime::Format::Strptime->new(...);
          my $dt = DateTime->new(year => 2004, formatter => $formatter);
 
        Or, you can set it afterwards:
 
          $dt->set_formatter($formatter);
          $formatter = $dt->formatter();
 
        Once you set the formatter, the overloaded stringification method will
        use the formatter. If unspecified, the "iso8601()" method is used.
 
        A formatter can be handy when you know that in your application you
        want to stringify your DateTime objects into a special format all the
        time, for example to a different language.
 
        strftime Specifiers
 
        The following specifiers are allowed in the format string given to the
        "strftime()" method:
 
        * %a
            The abbreviated weekday name.
 
        * %A
            The full weekday name.
 
        * %b
            The abbreviated month name.
 
        * %B
            The full month name.
 
        * %c
            The default datetime format for the object’s locale.
 
        * %C
            The century number (year/100) as a 2-digit integer.
 
        * %d
            The day of the month as a decimal number (range 01 to 31).
 
        * %D
            Equivalent to %m/%d/%y.  This is not a good standard format if you
            want folks from both the United States and the rest of the world to
            understand the date!
 
        * %e
            Like %d, the day of the month as a decimal number, but a leading
            zero is replaced by a space.
 
        * %F
            Equivalent to %Y-%m-%d (the ISO 8601 date format)
 
        * %G
            The ISO 8601 year with century as a decimal number.  The 4-digit
            year corresponding to the ISO week number (see %V).  This has the
            same format and value as %Y, except that if the ISO week number
            belongs to the previous or next year, that year is used instead.
            (TZ)
 
        * %g
            Like %G, but without century, i.e., with a 2-digit year (00-99).
 
        * %h
            Equivalent to %b.
 
        * %H
            The hour as a decimal number using a 24-hour clock (range 00 to
            23).
 
        * %I
            The hour as a decimal number using a 12-hour clock (range 01 to
            12).
 
        * %j
            The day of the year as a decimal number (range 001 to 366).
 
        * %k
            The hour (24-hour clock) as a decimal number (range 0 to 23); sin‐
            gle digits are preceded by a blank. (See also %H.)
 
        * %l
            The hour (12-hour clock) as a decimal number (range 1 to 12); sin‐
            gle digits are preceded by a blank. (See also %I.)
 
        * %m
            The month as a decimal number (range 01 to 12).
 
        * %M
            The minute as a decimal number (range 00 to 59).
 
        * %n
            A newline character.
 
        * %N
            The fractional seconds digits. Default is 9 digits (nanoseconds).
 
              %3N   milliseconds (3 digits)
              %6N   microseconds (6 digits)
              %9N   nanoseconds  (9 digits)
 
        * %p
            Either ‘AM’ or ‘PM’ according to the given time value, or the cor‐
            responding strings for the current locale.  Noon is treated as ‘pm’
            and midnight as ‘am’.
 
        * %P
            Like %p but in lowercase: ‘am’ or ‘pm’ or a corresponding string
            for the current locale.
 
        * %r
            The time in a.m.  or p.m. notation.  In the POSIX locale this is
            equivalent to ‘%I:%M:%S %p’.
 
        * %R
            The time in 24-hour notation (%H:%M). (SU) For a version including
            the seconds, see %T below.
 
        * %s
            The number of seconds since the epoch.
 
        * %S
            The second as a decimal number (range 00 to 61).
 
        * %t
            A tab character.
 
        * %T
            The time in 24-hour notation (%H:%M:%S).
 
        * %u
            The day of the week as a decimal, range 1 to 7, Monday being 1.
            See also %w.
 
        * %U
            The week number of the current year as a decimal number, range 00
            to 53, starting with the first Sunday as the first day of week 01.
            See also %V and %W.
 
        * %V
            The ISO 8601:1988 week number of the current year as a decimal num‐
            ber, range 01 to 53, where week 1 is the first week that has at
            least 4 days in the current year, and with Monday as the first day
            of the week. See also %U and %W.
 
        * %w
            The day of the week as a decimal, range 0 to 6, Sunday being 0.
            See also %u.
 
        * %W
            The week number of the current year as a decimal number, range 00
            to 53, starting with the first Monday as the first day of week 01.
 
        * %x
            The default date format for the object’s locale.
 
        * %X
            The default time format for the object’s locale.
 
        * %y
            The year as a decimal number without a century (range 00 to 99).
 
        * %Y
            The year as a decimal number including the century.
 
        * %z
            The time-zone as hour offset from UTC.  Required to emit
            RFC822-conformant dates (using "%a, %d %b %Y %H:%M:%S %z").
 
        * %Z
            The time zone or name or abbreviation.
 
        * %%
            A literal ‘%’ character.
 
        * %{method}
            Any method name may be specified using the format "%{method}" name
            where "method" is a valid "DateTime.pm" object method.
        As of version 0.13, DateTime implements Storable hooks in order to
        reduce the size of a serialized DateTime object.
        The tests in 20infinite.t seem to fail on some machines, particularly
        on Win32.  This appears to be related to Perl’s internal handling of
        IEEE infinity and NaN, and seems to be highly platform/compiler/phase
        of moon dependent.
 
        If you don’t plan to use infinite datetimes you can probably ignore
        this.  This will be fixed (somehow) in future versions.
 

SUPPORT

        Support for this module is provided via the datetime@perl.org email
http://lists.perl.org/ for more details.
 
        Please submit bugs to the CPAN RT system at
http://rt.cpan.org/NoAuth/ReportBug.html?Queue=datetime or via email at
        bug-datetime@rt.cpan.org.
 

AUTHOR

        Dave Rolsky <autarch@urth.org>
 
        However, please see the CREDITS file for more details on who I really
        stole all the code from.
 

COPYRIGHT

        Copyright (c) 2003-2006 David Rolsky.  All rights reserved.  This pro‐
        gram is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under
        the same terms as Perl itself.
 
        Portions of the code in this distribution are derived from other works.
        Please see the CREDITS file for more details.
 
        The full text of the license can be found in the LICENSE file included
        with this module.
        datetime@perl.org mailing list
 
http://datetime.perl.org/
 

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