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        ipsec.secrets - secrets for IKE/IPsec authentication


        The  file  ipsec.secrets  holds  a table of secrets.  These secrets are
ipsec_pluto(8), the  Open  Internet  Key  Exchange  daemon,  to
        authenticate  other  hosts.   Currently there are two kinds of secrets:
        preshared secrets and RSA private keys.
        It is vital that these secrets be protected.  The file should be  owned
        by  the  super-user,  and  its  permissions  should be set to block all
        access by others.
        The file is a sequence of entries and include directives.  Here  is  an
        example.  Each entry or directive must start at the left margin, but if
        it continues beyond a single  line,  each  continuation  line  must  be
               # sample /etc/ipsec.secrets file for
      PSK "secret shared by two hosts"
               # an entry may be split across lines,
               # but indentation matters
               www.xs4all.nl @www.kremvax.ru
          PSK "secret shared by 5"
               # an RSA private key.
               # note that the lines are too wide for a
               # man page, so ... has been substituted for
               # the truncated part
               @my.com: rsa {
                   Modulus: 0syXpo/6waam+ZhSs8Lt6jnBzu3C4grtt...
                   PublicExponent: 0sAw==
                   PrivateExponent: 0shlGbVR1m8Z+7rhzSyenCaBN...
                   Prime1: 0s8njV7WTxzVzRz7AP+0OraDxmEAt1BL5l...
                   Prime2: 0s1LgR7/oUMo9BvfU8yRFNos1s211KX5K0...
                   Exponent1: 0soaXj85ihM5M2inVf/NfHmtLutVz4r...
                   Exponent2: 0sjdAL9VFizF+BKU4ohguJFzOd55OG6...
                   Coefficient: 0sK1LWwgnNrNFGZsS/2GuMBg9nYVZ...
               include ipsec.*.secrets  # get secrets from other files
        Each entry in the file is a list of indices, followed by a secret.  The
        two parts are separated by a colon (:) that is followed  by  whitespace
        or  a  newline.  For compatability with the previous form of this file,
        if the key part is just a double-quoted string the colon  may  be  left
        An index is an IP address, or a Fully Qualified Domain Name, user@FQDN,
        %any or %any6 (other kinds may come).  An IP address may be written  in
        the  familiar dotted quad form or as a domain name to be looked up when
        the file is loaded (or in any of the forms supported  by  the  Openswan
ipsec_ttoaddr(3)  routine).   In  many  cases  it  is a bad idea to use
        domain names because the name server may not be running or may be inse‐
        cure.   To  denote  a  Fully Qualified Domain Name (as opposed to an IP
        address denoted by its domain name), precede the name with an  at  sign
        Matching  IDs  with  indices is fairly straightforward: they have to be
        equal.  In the case of a ‘‘Road Warrior’’ connection, if an equal match
        is not found for the Peer’s ID, and it is in the form of an IP address,
        an index of %any will match the peer’s IP address  if  IPV4  and  %any6
        will  match  a  the peer’s IP address if IPV6.  Currently, the obsolete
        notation may be used in place of %any.
        An additional complexity arises in the case of authentication  by  pre‐
        shared secret: the responder will need to look up the secret before the
        Peer’s ID payload has been decoded, so the  ID  used  will  be  the  IP
        To  authenticate  a  connection  between two hosts, the entry that most
        specifically matches the host and peer IDs is used.  An entry  with  no
        index  will  match any host and peer.  More specifically, an entry with
        one index will match a host and peer if the index matches the host’s ID
        (the  peer  isn’t  considered).  Still more specifically, an entry with
        multiple indices will match a host and peer if the host ID and peer  ID
        each match one of the indices.  If the key is for an asymmetric authen‐
        tication technique (i.e. a public key system such  as  RSA),  an  entry
        with  multiple indices will match a host and peer even if only the host
        ID matches an index (it is presumed that the multiple indices  are  all
        identities  of  the  host).  It is acceptable for two entries to be the
        best match as long as they agree about the secret or private key.
        Authentication by preshared secret requires that both systems find  the
        identical  secret  (the  secret  is not actually transmitted by the IKE
        protocol).  If both the host and peer appear in  the  index  list,  the
        same  entry  will  be  suitable  for  both  systems so verbatim copying
        between systems can be used.  This naturally extends to  larger  groups
        sharing  the same secret.  Thus multiple-index entries are best for PSK
        Authentication by RSA Signatures requires that each host have  its  own
        private  key.  A host could reasonably use a different private keys for
        different interfaces and for different peers.  But it would not be nor‐
        mal to share entries between systems.  Thus thus no-index and one-index
        forms of entry often make sense for RSA Signature authentication.
        The key part of an entry may start with a token indicating the kind  of
        key.  ‘‘RSA’’ signifies RSA private key and ‘‘PSK’’ signifies PreShared
        Key (case is ignored).  For compatability with previous forms  of  this
        file, PSK is the default.
        A  preshared  secret  is most conveniently represented as a sequence of
        characters, delimited by the double-quote character (").  The  sequence
        cannot  contain  a  newline  or  double-quote.   Strictly speaking, the
        secret is actually the sequence of bytes that is used in  the  file  to
        represent  the  sequence  of  characters (excluding the delimiters).  A
        preshared secret may also be represented, without quotes, in  any  form
        An  RSA  private  key  is a composite of eight generally large numbers.
        The notation used is a brace-enclosed list  of  field  name  and  value
        pairs  (see  the example above).  A suitable key, in a suitable format,
ipsec_rsasigkey(8).  The structure is very  similar
        to  that  used  by  BIND 8.2.2 or later, but note that the numbers must
        have a ‘‘0s’’ prefix if they are in base 64.  The order of  the  fields
        is fixed.
        The  first  token  an entry must start in the first column of its line.
        Subsequent tokens must be separated by whitespace, except for  a  colon
        token,  which  only  needs  to be followed by whitespace.  A newline is
        taken as whitespace, but every line of an entry after the first must be
        Whitespace  at  the end of a line is ignored (except in the 0t notation
        for a key).  At the start of line or after whitespace, # and  the  fol‐
        lowing  text up to the end of the line is treated as a comment.  Within
        entries, all lines must be indented (except for lines with no  tokens).
        Outside entries, no line may be indented (this is to make sure that the
        file layout reflects its structure).
        An include directive causes the contents of the named file to  be  pro‐
        cessed  before  continuing with the current file.  The filename is sub‐
sh(1), so every file with a matching name is
        processed.   Includes  may be nested to a modest depth (10, currently).
        If the filename doesn’t start with a /, the  directory  containing  the
        current file is prepended to the name.  The include directive is a line
        that starts with the word include, followed by whitespace, followed  by
        the filename (which must not contain whitespace).




        Originally designed for the FreeS/WAN project <http://www.freeswan.org>
        by D. Hugh Redelmeier.


        If  an  ID is, it will match %any; if it is 0::0, it will match


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