Ubuntu Feisty 7.04 manual page repository

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Provided by: lilo_22.6.1-9ubuntu2_i386



        lilo.conf - configuration file for lilo


        This  file,  by  default  /etc/lilo.conf,  is  read  by the boot loader
        It might look as follows:
               # lilo.conf
               #  global options:
               menu-title=" John’s Computer "
               #  bootable kernel images:
               #  other operating systems:
                    boot-as=0x80    # must be C:
                    boot-as=0x80    # must be C:
                    table=E:   # os2 sees as E:
        This configuration file specifies that lilo uses the Master Boot Record
        on /dev/hda. (For a discussion of the various ways to use lilo, and the
        interaction with other operating systems, see user.tex  from  the  lilo
        When  booting, the boot loader will issue its boot: prompt and wait for
        you to enter the label of the kernel (and any options) which  you  wish
        to  boot.  At  any time you may hit [Tab] to see a list of kernel/other
        labels.  Alternately, if the menu boot loader is installed, a  menu  of
        boot  options  will be presented for your selection.  The title of this
        menu is overridden with the menu title specification in this configura‐
        tion  file.   If  you enter nothing, then the default kernel image, the
        first mentioned, (/boot/zImage-1.5.99) will be booted after  a  timeout
        of  15 seconds (150 deciseconds).  There may be at least 16 images men‐
        tioned  in  lilo.conf.  (The  exact  number  depends  upon  compilation
        As  can  be  seen  above,  a configuration file starts with a number of
        global options (the top 9 lines in the example), followed  by  descrip‐
        tions  of  the  options  for the various images.  An option in an image
        description will override a global option.
        Comment lines may appear anywhere, and begin with the "#" character.
        There are many possible keywords. The description below is almost  lit‐
        erally from user.tex (just slightly abbreviated).
               Specifies  the location where a copy of any modified boot sector
               will be saved in a file. ’backup=’ may specify this location  in
               one  of  three  ways:  a directory where the default backup file
               ’boot.NNNN’ will be created; a file pathname template  to  which
               the  ’.NNNN’  suffix  will  be added; or the full file pathname,
               which must include the correct ’.NNNN’ suffix.  All RAID instal‐
               lations  should use only the first two alternatives, as multiple
               backups may be created.  The ’.NNNN’ suffix is  the  hexadecimal
               representation  of  the  major  and  minor device numbers of the
               device or partition.  If  this  option  is  not  specified,  the
               default  name  of boot sector backups is ’/boot/boot.NNNN’. If a
               backup already exists, it will be preserved, rather  than  over‐
               written.  C.f., force-backup= below.
               The  option  is indicated as yes, no, or unknown.  If not speci‐
               fied, a value of "unknown" is assumed, unless additional  infor‐
               mation  is  available to the boot installer. When "no" is speci‐
               fied, it indicates that the BIOS is known not to pass  the  cur‐
               rent  boot  device  code  to the boot loader in the DL register.
               Its only function at this point is experimental, as certain RAID
               installations  may  benefit  from  knowing that the BIOS is 100%
               reliable.  Its use should be considered experimental.
               N.B.:  This option  may  not  be  retained  in  releases  beyond
               22.5.1,  and  may be specified on the command line with the ’-Z’
               switch:  yes=1, no=0.
               Specifies  use  of  a  640x480x16  (VGA  BIOS)  or   640x480x256
               (VGA/VESA  BIOS)  bitmap  file as the background on which a boot
               menu is displayed.  May not be used if ’message=’ is  specified.
               Use  of  this  option  will select a bitmap-capable boot loader,
               unless overridden with "install=" (see below).
               When a bitmap file is specified as a  background  screen  during
               the  boot  process,  the  color selection and layout of the text
               which overlays the graphic image must be specified in one of two
               ways.   One way, is to use a bitmap image (*.bmp) file which has
               had a header written by the lilo -E command.  If this command is
               used, then all of the information specified by the ’bmp-colors’,
               ’bmp-table’, and ’bmp-timer’ options is stored in a special LILO
               header  within the bitmap file.  Without this header, the ’bmp-’
               option values should be specified in the configuration file;  if
               not,  default  values  are  used.  Any use of the ’bmp-’ options
               within the configuration file overrides the values stored in the
               bitmap file header.
               Specifies  the  decimal  values of the colors to be used for the
               menu display on a ’bitmap=’ background.  The list consists of  6
               entries,  3  for normal text followed by 3 for highlighted text.
               The order of each triple is: foreground color, background color,
               shadow  color.  If background color is not specified, "transpar‐
               ent" is assumed.  If shadow color is not specified, then  "none"
               is  assumed.   The list entries are separated by commas, with no
               Option applies to all ’image=’ and ’other=’ sections.  (See COM‐
               MON OPTIONS, below.)
               Specifies  the  location  and layout of the menu table.  <x>,<y>
               specify the starting x- and y-position of the upper left  corner
               of  the  table  in  character  coordinates:  x  in [1..80], y in
               [1..30]. <ncol> is the number of columns in the menu (1..5); and
               <nrow>  is the number of rows (entries) in each column.  If more
               than one column is specified, then <xsep> is the number of char‐
               acter  columns  between  the leftmost characters in each column:
               (18..40), and <spill> is the number of  entries  in  one  column
               which  must be filled before entries spill into the next column.
               <spill> must be  .le.  <nrow>.  If  pixel  addressing  is  used,
               instead of character addressing, then any of <x>, <y>, or <xsep>
               may be specified with a ’p’ suffix on the decimal value.
               Optional  specification  of  the  ’timeout=’  countdown   timer.
               <x>,<y>  specifies  the  character  (or pixel) coordinate of the
               location of the timer the same as ’bmp-table=’  above;  and  the
               color triple specifes the character color attributes the same as
               ’bmp-colors=’ above, with  the  exception  that  the  background
               color must be specified.  If used to override the timer specifi‐
               cation in a bitmap file, then the form  ’bmp-timer  =  none’  is
               acceptable.  This will disable the timer display entirely.
               Sets  the  name  of the device (e.g. a hard disk partition) that
               contains the boot sector. If this keyword is omitted,  the  boot
               sector is read from (and possibly written to) the device that is
               currently mounted as root.  A raid installation is initiated  by
               specifying   a   RAID1   device   as   the  boot  device;  e.g.,
               "boot=/dev/md0".  Note that LILO version 22.0 and later  operate
               differently  from  earlier  versions  with respect to the actual
               location of the boot records.
               Defines boot-time changes to partition type numbers  (‘hiding’).
               The  above  excerpt from a configuration file specifies that all
               default change-rules are removed ("reset"), and the change-rules
               for three partition types are specified.  Without the reset, the
               three types specified would have  been  added  to  the  existing
               default  change-rules.   Normally,  the default rules are suffi‐
               cient.  The strings which define the partition types are used in
               a  change  section  (see  below), with the suffixes "_normal" or
               "_hidden" appended.  See section "Partition type  change  rules"
               of user.tex for more details.
               Tries  to merge read requests for adjacent sectors into a single
               read request. This drastically reduces load time and  keeps  the
               map file smaller. Using ‘compact’ is especially recommended when
               booting using a map file on a floppy disk.
               Uses the specified image as the default boot image. If ‘default’
               is  omitted, the image appearing first in the configuration file
               is used. See also, vmdefault below.
               Specifies the number of tenths  of  a  second  the  boot  loader
               should  wait before automatically booting a locked command line,
               a command line pre-stored by "lilo -R", or the default  ‘image=’
               or  ‘other=’.   When  ‘delay’  is non-zero, the boot loader will
               wait for an interrupt for the specified interval. If  an  inter‐
               rupt  is  received, or is already waiting, the boot: prompt will
               be be issued, and no automatic boot will take place. The setting
               of  CAPS  LOCK  or SCROLL LOCK, or any of the keys ALT, CTRL, or
               SHIFT, when held down, are taken as interrupts.
               This action is modified by specifying ‘prompt’ (see below).
               Defines non-standard parameters for  the  specified  disk.   See
               section  "Disk  geometry" of user.tex for details.  For versions
               of LILO prior to 22.5, the ‘bios=’ parameter is quite useful for
               specifying how the BIOS has assigned device codes to your disks.
               For example,
               would say that your SCSI disk is the  first  BIOS  disk  (0x80),
               that  your  (primary  master)  IDE  disk is the second BIOS disk
               (0x81), and that your second SCSI disk (perhaps  a  USB  device)
               receives  no  device code, and is therefore inaccessible at boot
               NOTE: Use of the ’bios=’ option is  largely  obsolete  beginning
               with  LILO version 22.5, as the boot loader now identifies disks
               by 32-bit Volume-ID, and defers BIOS device  code  determination
               until boot time.
               Most  USB  devices  which  are implemented as SCSI disks MUST be
               marked inaccessible unless they are actually assigned  a  device
               code by the BIOS.
               Other options include the specification of disk geometry; e.g.,
               probably  only  useful  for  floppy  disks and loopback devices,
               since for hard disks the  lba32  disk  addressing  option  (LILO
               21.2) ignores disk geometry.
               In  cases where there is no kernel paritition information avail‐
               able, such as on loopback devices, the ’disk=’ specification may
               include paritition start information; viz.,
                                start=63          # offset from sector 0
                                start=102400      # offset from sector 0
               (22.5.8) Developers who have implemented a disk driver for a new
               block storage device will have to indicate to LILO  the  maximum
               number of partitions on the device.  This is in addition to mak‐
               ing all of the necessary entries for the device  in  the  "/dev"
               directory (with ’mknod’).  The maximum number of partitions must
               be one of 63 (like an IDE disk), 15 (like  SCSI  disks  --  most
               common  value),  or  7  (like one array controller).  An example
               specifictaion would be:
               Specifies the  name  of  the  disk  parameter  table.   The  map
               installer  looks  for  /etc/disktab if ‘disktab’ is omitted. The
               use of disktabs is discouraged.
               Flag second stage loader to terminate floppy disk emulation when
               booting  from an El Torito Bootable CD. This option is used only
               by the mkrescue utility used with the "--iso" switch.
               This allows lilo to adjust 3D  addresses  in  partition  tables.
               Each  partition entry contains a 3D (cylinder/head/sector) and a
               linear address of the first and the last sector  of  the  parti‐
               tion.  If  a partition is not track-aligned and if certain other
               operating systems (e.g. PC/MS-DOS or OS/2) are  using  the  same
               disk,  they  may  change the 3D address. lilo can store its boot
               sector only on partitions where both address  types  correspond.
               lilo  re-adjusts  incorrect 3D start addresses if ‘fix-table’ is
               WARNING: This does not guarantee that  other  operating  systems
               may  not attempt to reset the address later. It is also possible
               that this change has other, unexpected side-effects. The correct
               fix  is to re-partition the drive with a program that does align
               partitions to tracks. Also, with some  disks  (e.g.  some  large
               EIDE disks with address translation enabled), under some circum‐
               stances, it may even be unavoidable to have  conflicting  parti‐
               tion table entries.
               Operation  is  identical  to  backup=  above, except an existing
               backup file is unconditionally overwritten if it exists.
               Force disk addressing which is compatible with older versions of
               LILO.  Geometric addressing uses cylinder/head/sector addresses,
               and is limited to disk cylinders up to  1023.   If  inaccessible
               cylinders  are  referenced,  diagnostics will be issued at boot-
               install time, rather than boot-time.  With a newer BIOS, use  of
               ’lba32’ is recommended.
               tells lilo to ignore corrupt partition tables.
               Selects the user interface which will be seen at boot time.  One
               of the following three options may be specified:  text, menu, or
               bmp. The traditional LILO interface is ‘text’; but ‘menu’ is now
               the default, unless the configurtion file contains the ‘bitmap=’
               specification.   The  text  interface is strictly a command-line
               interface as though the console were a dumb terminal.  The  menu
               interface  is  a text-based screen of the boot choices, with the
               option to enter additional command line parameters.  And the bmp
               interface  is  a menu presented against a graphic screen, speci‐
               fied as a 640x480 BitMaP file of 16 or  256  colors.   (See  the
               ’lilo -E’ switch for editing options).
               (Prior  to  LILO  version  22.3,  ‘install=’  specified the user
               interface as a file in the ‘/boot’ directory.)
               Normally any initial ramdisk (initrd) loaded with  a  kernel  is
               loaded  as  high  in  memory  as possible, but never above 15Mb.
               This is due to a BIOS limitation on  older  systems.   On  newer
               systems,  this  option  enables using memory above 15Mb (up to a
               kernel imposed limit, around 768Mb) for passing  the  initrd  to
               the  kernel.   The presence of this option merely indicates that
               your system does not have the old BIOS limitation.
               This switch (or its abscence) is not passed to the  kernel,  and
               does  not  in any way affect the amount of physical memory which
               it will use.  (See the kernel documentation for the kernel  com‐
               mand  line  parameter "mem=" for limiting the memory used by the
        lba32  Generate  32-bit  Logical  Block  Addresses  instead  of  cylin‐
               der/head/sector  addresses. If the BIOS supports packet address‐
               ing, then packet calls will be used to  access  the  disk.  This
               allows  booting  from any partition on disks with more than 1024
               cylinders.  If the BIOS does not support packet addressing, then
               ’lba32’  addresses are translated to cylinder/head/sector (’geo‐
               metric’), just as for ’linear’.  All floppy disk references  are
               retained  in  C:H:S  form.  Use of ’lba32’ is recommended on all
               post-1998 systems.  Beginning with LILO version 22,  ’lba32’  is
               the default disk addressing scheme.
        linear Generate  24-bit  linear  sector  addresses  instead  of  cylin‐
               der/head/sector  (geometric)  addresses.  Linear  addresses  are
               translated  at  run time to geometric addresses, and are limited
               to cylinders <= 1023. When  using  ‘linear’  with  large  disks,
               /sbin/lilo  may  generate references to inaccessible disk cylin‐
               ders. ’lba32’ avoids many of these  pitfalls  with  its  use  of
               packet  addressing, but requires a recent BIOS (post-1998).  The
               ’linear’ option is considered obsolete, and its use is  strongly
        lock   Enables  automatic  recording  of  boot  command  lines  as  the
               defaults for the following boots. This way, lilo  "locks"  on  a
               choice until it is manually overridden.
               The per-image password option ‘mandatory’ (see below) applies to
               all images.
               Specifies the location of the map file. If ‘map’ is omitted, the
               file /boot/map is used.
               On  machines with a pre-1998 BIOS, the EDD bios extensions which
               are required to support "lba32" disk sector addressing  may  not
               be  present.  In this case, the boot-loader will fall back auto‐
               matically to "geometric" addressing; this fall  back  situation,
               or  the specific use of "geometric" or "linear" addressing, will
               require the map file to be located within the first 1024  cylin‐
               ders  of  the disk drive. This BIOS limitation is not present on
               post-1998 systems, most of which support the newer EDD disk BIOS
               Specifies  the  title  line  (up  to 37 characters) for the boot
               menu. This title replaces the default  "LILO  Boot  Menu"  title
               string.  If  menu  is  not  installed  as  the  boot loader (see
               install= option), then this line has no effect.
               The default color scheme of the boot menu may be  overridden  on
               VGA  displays  using  this option. (The color scheme of MDA dis‐
               plays is fixed.)  The general  color-scheme  string  is  of  the
               where  each  entry  is two characters which specify a foreground
               color and a background color. Only the first entry is  required.
               The  default highlight is the reverse of the text color; and the
               default border and title colors are the text color.  Colors  are
               specified using the characters kbgcrmyw, for blacK, Blue, Green,
               Cyan, Red, Magenta, Yellow, and White: upper  case  for  intense
               (fg only), lower case for dim.  Legal color-scheme strings would
                   menu-scheme=Wm     intense white on magenta
                   menu-scheme=wr:bw:wr:Yr    the LILO default
                   menu-scheme=Yk:kw    bright yellow on black
               If menu is not installed as the boot loader, then this line  has
               no effect.
               specifies  a  file containing a message that is displayed before
               the boot prompt. No message is displayed  while  waiting  for  a
               shifting  key  after  printing  "LILO  ". In the message, the FF
               character ([Ctrl L]) clears the local screen. This  is  undesir‐
               able  when  the  menu boot loader is installed.  The size of the
               message file is limited to 65535 bytes. The map file has  to  be
               rebuilt if the message file is changed or moved.  ’message=’ and
               ’bitmap=’ are mutually exclusive.
        nowarn Disables warnings about possible future dangers.
               The per-image option  ‘optional’  (see  below)  applies  to  all
               The  per-image  option ‘password=...’ (see below) applies to all
               images. This option  may  prevent  unattended  booting,  if  the
               default  image  is  ‘password=’  protected  at the default level
               ‘mandatory’, which is a level higher than ‘restricted’.
        prompt Automatic booting (see ‘delay’ above) will not take place unless
               a  locked  or  pre-stored  ("lilo  -R") command line is present.
               Instead, the boot loader will issue the boot:  prompt  and  wait
               for  user  input  before  proceeding (see timeout below).  Unat‐
               tended default image reboots are impossible if ‘prompt’  is  set
               and ‘timeout’ is not, or the default image is password protected
               at a higher level than ‘restricted’.
               This option only  has  meaning  for  RAID1  installations.   The
               <option>  may  be  specified  as none, auto, mbr, mbr-only, or a
               comma-separated list  of  devices;  e.g.,  "/dev/hda,/dev/hdc6".
               Starting  with  LILO  version  22.0, the boot record is normally
               written to the first sector of the RAID1 partition.  On PARALLEL
               raid sets, no other boot records are needed.  The default action
               is auto, meaning, automatically generate auxilary  boot  records
               as  needed  on SKEWED raid sets.  none means suppress generation
               of all auxiliary boot records.  mbr-only  suppresses  generation
               of  a  boot  record on the raid device, and forces compatibility
               with versions of LILO earlier than version 22.0 by writing  boot
               records  to  all  Master  Boot Records (MBRs) of all disks which
               have partitions in the raid set. mbr is like mbr-only except the
               boot  record  on the RAID parition is not suppressed.  Use of an
               explicit list of  devices,  forces  writing  of  auxiliary  boot
               records  only  on  those  devices enumerated, in addition to the
               boot record on the RAID1 device.  Since  the  version  22  RAID1
               codes will never automatically write a boot record on the MBR of
               device 0x80, if such a boot record is desired, this is  one  way
               to have it written. Use of mbr is the other way to force writing
               to the MBR of device 0x80.
               The per-image password option ‘restricted’ (see  below)  applies
               to all images.
               enables control from a serial line. The specified serial port is
               initialized and the boot loader is accepting input from  it  and
               from  the PC’s keyboard. Sending a break on the serial line cor‐
               responds to pressing a shift key on the console in order to  get
               the  boot  loader’s  attention.  All boot images should be pass‐
               word-protected if the serial access is less secure  than  access
               to  the  console,  e.g. if the line is connected to a modem. The
               parameter string has the following syntax:
               <port>:  the number of the serial  port,  zero-based.  0  corre‐
               sponds to COM1 alias /dev/ttyS0, etc. All four ports can be used
               (if present).
               <bps>:  the baud rate of the serial  port.  The  following  baud
               rates  are  supported:  110, 150, 300, 600, 1200, 2400(default),
               4800,  9600,  plus  the  extended  rates   19200,   38400,   and
               57600(56000).  115200 is allowed, but may not work with all COMx
               port hardware.
               <parity>:  the parity used on the serial line. The  boot  loader
               ignores  input  parity  and  strips  the  8th bit. The following
               (upper or lower case) characters are used to describe  the  par‐
               ity:   "n"  for  no  parity, "e" for even parity and "o" for odd
               <bits>:  the number of bits in a character. Only 7  and  8  bits
               are  supported. Default is 8 if parity is "none", 7 if parity is
               "even" or "odd".
               If ‘serial’ is set, the value of ‘delay’ is automatically raised
               to 20.
               Example:  "serial=0,2400n8"  initializes  COM1  with the default
               This option specifies that boot images or  ’other’s  are  to  be
               selected  and  launched  with  a single keystroke.  Selection is
               based upon the first character  of  each  name,  which  must  be
               unique.   This option should not be used with the menu or bitmap
               user interface ("install=").
               Causes the operation of the boot installer and  boot  loader  to
               bypass the use of Volume-ID information, and to revert to a mode
               of operation of versions of LILO from 22.4 backward.  With  Vol‐
               ume-ID  booting  (22.5  and  later), the BIOS codes of disks are
               determined at boot time, not install time;  hence  they  may  be
               switched  around,  either by adding or removing disk(s) from the
               hardware configuration, or by using a BIOS menu  to  select  the
               boot device.
               With  the  use  of this option, BIOS codes of disks MUST be cor‐
               rectly specified at install time; either  guessed  correctly  by
               LILO  (which  often fails on mixed IDE/SCSI systems), or explic‐
               itly specified with ’disk=/dev/XXX bios=0xYY’  statements.   The
               use  of  this  option  precludes  any  activity which may switch
               around the BIOS codes assigned to particular  disk  devices,  as
               noted above.
               In  general,  this  option should never be used, except as a bug
               This global option suppresses the boot-time real mode collection
               of BIOS data on systems which hang on certain BIOS calls.  It is
               equivalent to using the boot-time switch ’nobd’.
               This option defeats the disk volume recognition and BIOS  device
               code  detection  features  of LILO on systems with more than one
               disk. Thus the use of this option will produce a strong caution‐
               ary message, which cannot be suppressed.
               sets a timeout (in tenths of a second) for keyboard input at the
               boot: prompt.  "timeout" only has meaning if  "prompt"  is  men‐
               tioned.   If  no  key  is  pressed  for  the specified time, the
               default image is automatically booted. The  default  timeout  is
               Turns  on  lots  of progress reporting. Higher numbers give more
               verbose output. If  -v  is additionally specified  on  the  lilo
               command  line,  the  level is increased accordingly. The maximum
               verbosity level is 5.
               The named boot image is used as the default boot if  booting  in
               "virtual" mode with a virtual monitor, such as VMware(tm).  Thus
               a real mode boot and a virtual mode boot can  be  made  to  have
               different default boot images.
        Additionally,  the  kernel  configuration  parameters  append, ramdisk,
        read-only, read-write, root and vga can be set in  the  global  options
        section. They are used as defaults if they aren’t specified in the con‐
        figuration sections of the respective kernel images.
        A per-image section starts with either a line
        to indicate a file or device containing the boot image of a Linux  ker‐
        nel, or a line
        to indicate an arbitrary system to boot.
        In  the  former case, if an image line specifies booting from a device,
        then one has to indicate the range of sectors to be mapped using
        In the third case, ’nsec=1’ is assumed.
        If the booted image is a Linux kernel, then one may pass  command  line
        parameters to this kernel.
               (22.6) The kernel parameters from the specified string, are con‐
               catenated to the parameter(s) from an append= specification (see
               below).  The string must be enclosed within double quotes.  Usu‐
               ally, the previous append= will specify parameters common to all
               kernels  by appearing in the top, or global, section of the con‐
               figuratin file and addappend= will be used to add local  parame‐
               ter(s) to an individual image.  Addappend= may be used only once
               per "image=" section.
               Appends the options specified to the parameter  line  passed  to
               the  kernel.  This is typically used to specify hardware parame‐
               ters that can’t be entirely auto-detected or for  which  probing
               may  be dangerous. Multiple kernel parameters are separated by a
               blank space, and the string must be enclosed in  double  quotes.
               A  local  append=  appearing withing an image= section overrides
               any global append= appearing in the top section of the  configu‐
               ration  file.   Append=  may be used only once per "image=" sec‐
               tion. To concatenate parameter strings, use "addappend=".  Exam‐
                    append="mem=96M hd=576,64,32 console=ttyS1,9600"
               Specifies  the  initial ramdisk image to be loaded with the ker‐
               nel.  The image will contain modules needed at boot  time,  such
               Like  ‘append’,  but  removes all other options (e.g. setting of
               the root device). ’literal’ overrides all ’append’  and  ’addap‐
               pend’  options.   Because  vital options can be removed uninten‐
               tionally with ‘literal’, this option cannot be set in the global
               options section.
               This  specifies  the  size  (e.g.,  "4096k") of the optional RAM
               disk. A value of zero indicates that no RAM disk should be  cre‐
               ated.  If this variable is omitted, the RAM disk size configured
               into the boot image is used.
               This specifies that the root file system should be mounted read-
               only.   It  may be specified as a global option.  Typically, the
               system startup procedure re-mounts the root  file  system  read-
               write later (e.g. after fsck’ing it).
               This specifies that the root file system should be mounted read-
               write.  It may be specified as a global option.
               This specifies the device that should be mounted  as  root.   It
               may  be  specified as a global option.  If the special name cur     
               rent is used, the root device is set to the device on which  the
               root  file  system  is  currently  mounted. If the root has been
               changed with  -r , the respective device is used. If  the  vari‐
               able ‘root’ is omitted, the root device setting contained in the
               kernel image is used.  (And that is set at  compile  time  using
               the  ROOT_DEV  variable in the kernel Makefile, and can later be
rdev(8) program.)
               (22.6) The root filesystem may also be  specified  by  a  LABEL=
               directive,  as  in  ’/etc/fstab’.  In this case, the argument to
               root= must be enclosed in quotation marks,  to  avoid  a  syntax
               error on the second equal sign; viz.,
               Note:   The  command  line  root= parameter passed to the kernel
               will be: ’root=LABEL=MyDisk’; i.e., without the quotation marks.
               If  the  root=  parameter  is  passed  from  the boot time boot:
               prompt, no quotes are used.  The quotes are only there  to  sat‐
               isfy the requirements of the boot-installer parser, which treats
               an equal sign as an operator.  The kernel command line parser is
               very much simpler, and must not see any quotation marks.  Simply
               stated, only use the quotation marks within /etc/lilo.conf.
               This specifies the VGA text mode that should  be  selected  when
               booting.  It may be specified as a global option.  The following
               values are recognized (case is ignored):
               normal: select normal 80x25 text mode.
               extended (or ext): select 80x50 text mode.
               ask: stop and ask for user input (at boot time).
               <number>: use the corresponding text mode. A list  of  available
               modes  can  be  obtained  by  booting  with vga=ask and pressing
               If this variable is omitted, the VGA mode setting  contained  in
               the kernel image is used. (And that is set at compile time using
               the SVGA_MODE variable in the kernel Makefile, and can later  be
rdev(8) program.)
        Used to load systems other than Linux. The ‘other = <device>’ specifies
        the boot sector of an alternate system contained on a  device  or  disk
        partition;  e.g.,  DOS on, say, ‘/dev/hda2’, or a floppy on ‘/dev/fd0’.
        In the case of booting another system there are these options:
               This specifies the chain loader that should  be  used.   It  may
               also be specified as a global option.  By default chain is used.
               This chain loader passes partition and drive information in  the
               boot  sector  it loads only to DOS on FAT12 or FAT16, Windows on
               FAT16 or FAT32, or OS/2 on FAT16 or HPFS.  The  alternate  chain
               loader,  os2_d  passes  partition and drive information uncondi‐
               tionally, and uses a format suitalble for OS/2 and DOS (see  ta‐
               ble=<letter> below).
               This  specifies  the  device  that contains the partition table.
               The boot loader will pass default partition information  to  the
               booted operating system if this variable is omitted. (Some oper‐
               ating systems have other means to determine from which partition
               they have been booted.  E.g., MS-DOS usually stores the geometry
               of the boot disk or partition in its boot  sector.)   Note  that
               /sbin/lilo must be re-run if a partition table mapped referenced
               with ‘table’ is modified.
               This is a special case for the os2_d chain loader.  It specifies
               the  DOS  drive  letter  for  the partition that will be booted.
               This is mandatory when booting OS/2  installed  on  an  extended
               partition.   The drive letter may be specified with or without a
               trailing colon.
        change This keyword starts a section which describes how primary parti‐
               tion  IDs  are changed, and how primary partitions are activated
               and deactivated.  If change is omitted, change rules are  gener‐
               ated  as  though the automatic keyword were specified.  The key‐
               word change alone, without any rules  following,  will  suppress
               automatic change-rules.  For example,
               specifies that when primary partition /dev/hda2 is booted, auto‐
               matic change-rules will be in effect; plus, partition 1, a DOS12
               partition,  will  be  set hidden, and deactivated.  In addition,
               partition 2, will be set normal, and activated.  Activation sets
               the boot-flag in the partition table.  The automatic keyword may
               confict with default change rules, so the set= lines  above  may
               be redundant.
               This option (LILO version 22.5.1) indicates the BIOS device code
               which must be assigned to the specified drive in order  for  the
               "other="  operating system to boot.  If the chain loader detects
               that another BIOS device code is assigned to this disk, then  it
               will  dynamically  swap the assigned device code with the speci‐
               fied device code.
               This option is easier to specify than "map-drive=" and more gen‐
               eral   than  "master-boot"  in  that  any  device  code  may  be
               specified.  Unlike "map-drive=", the  determination  whether  to
               swap  device codes is made at boot time, not install time.  This
               is advantageous on systems where the BIOS presents a  boot  menu
               of  devices,  and  will  map disks to devices in different ways,
               depending upon the BIOS boot selection.
               This option may be specified as a global option, in  which  case
               it  applies  to  all  "other=" sections unless overridden with a
               specific "master-boot" option.  If one of "boot-as=" or "master-
               boot"  is  specified as a global option, it is better to specify
               "master-boot" as the global option, as  it  will  not  interfere
               with floppy disk BIOS device codes; "boot-as=" is then used as a
               local option to override "master-boot" as necessary.
               This flag (LILO version 22.5)  indicates  a  DOS/Windows/OS2  or
               other  system  which  will  only boot from BIOS device 0x80, the
               "C:" drive, or BIOS device 0, the A: drive. When  this  flag  is
               specified,  if  this drive is not assigned device code 0x80 or 0
               by the BIOS, then the chain loader  will  dynamically  swap  the
               device code actually assigned with device code 0x80 or 0 to make
               this drive appear to be the first hard or floppy drive, "C:"  or
               This flag is easier to use than "map-drive=" (see below), and is
               preferred, if simple forcing of device code 0x80 is all that  is
               required. It is also more general, in that the necessity to swap
               BIOS device codes is determined dynamically at boot-time, not at
               boot  install-time,  as  with "map-drive=".  It is slightly more
               powerful than "boot-as=", in  that  the  device  code  which  is
               assigned, 0 or 0x80, is determined dynamically.
               This  option  may be specified as a global option, in which case
               it applies to all "other=" sections  unless  overridden  with  a
               specific "boot-as=" option.
               Maps BIOS calls for the specified drive to the device code spec‐
               ified on the next line as to=<num>.  This mapping is useful  for
               booting  operating  systems,  such  as DOS, from the second hard
               drive.  The following, swaps the C: and D: drives,
               This option is largely rendered obsolete by  "boot-as=",  intro‐
               duced with LILO version 22.5.
        unsafe Do  not  access  the boot sector at map creation time. This dis‐
               ables some sanity checks, including a partition table check.  If
               the  boot  sector is on a fixed-format floppy disk device, using
               UNSAFE avoids the need to put a readable  disk  into  the  drive
               when  running the map installer. If the boot sector is on a hard
               drive, the BIOS device code of the drive will have to be  speci‐
               fied  explicitly with "disk=/dev/XXXX bios=0x8X inaccessible" in
               the configuration  file.   ‘unsafe’  and  ‘table’  (explicit  or
               implicit) are mutually incompatible.
        In both the image= and other= cases, the following options apply.
               The  boot  loader  uses the main file name (without its path) of
               each image specification to identify that  image.   A  different
               name can be used by setting the variable ‘label’.
               A  second  name  for the same entry can be used by specifying an
               The bitmap graphic (install=bmp) is  retained  when  control  is
               passed  to  the loaded kernel image, or other= bootloader; i.e.,
               the screen is not blanked to alphanumeric mode  before  starting
               the  kernel.  This feature is conisdered EXPERIMENTAL, for those
               users working with startup splash screens.
               Specifies a string that is stored as the default command line if
               the  current  image is booted. This is useful when experimenting
               with kernels which may crash before  allowing  interaction  with
               the  system. If using the fallback option, the next reboot (e.g.
               triggered by a manual reset or by a watchdog timer) will load  a
               different (supposedly stable) kernel. The command line stored by
               the fallback mechanism is cleared by removing  or  changing  the
               default  command line with the -R option, which should be a part
               of the boot startup scripts.
        lock   (See above.)
               Omit the image if it is not available at map creation time.   It
               may  be specified as a global option.  This is useful to specify
               test kernels that are not always present.
               Protect  the  ‘image=’  or  ‘other=’   with   a   password   (or
               passphrase).   It  may  be  specified  as  a global option.  The
               interpretation of the ‘password=’ setting  is  modified  by  the
               words ‘mandatory’, ‘restricted’, and ‘bypass’ (see below).
               The  password  may be specified in the config-file (less secure)
               or entered at the time the boot loader is installed. To  request
               interactive entry of the password, it should be specified: pass     
               word="".  Passwords entered interactively are not required to be
               entered  again if the boot installer is re-run. They are cached,
               in hashed form, in a companion file to the config-file,  default
               name: /etc/lilo.conf.crc. If the config-file is updated, a warn‐
               ing message will be issued telling you  to  re-run  lilo  -p  to
               force re-creation of the password cache file.
               A  password is required to boot this image. This is the default.
               May be used on a single ‘image=’ or ‘other=’ to override a  dif‐
               ferent global setting.
               A  password is only required to boot the image if kernel parame‐
               ters are specified on the command line (e.g. ’single’).  May  be
               used  on  a  single ‘image=’ or ‘other=’ to override a different
               global setting.
        bypass No password is required to boot this  image.  Used  to  indicate
               that  the  global  password  does  not apply to this ‘image=’ or
        vmwarn If booting under a virtual monitor such as VMware(tm), the image
               with  this label will cause a cautionary warning to be issued at
               boot time, and user intervention will be required to continue or
               to abort the boot process.
               If  booting  under  a virtual monitor, the image with this label
               will not be displayed as a  boot  option.   The  image  is  only
               bootable in real mode.  See vmdefault above.
        The  lilo  distribution comes with extensive TEX documentation of which
        the above is an extract.


What does Ubuntu mean?
Ubuntu is an African word meaning 'Humanity to others', or 'I am what I am because of who we all are'. The Ubuntu distribution brings the spirit of Ubuntu to the software world.