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Provided by: apple2_0.7.4-5_i386

 

NAME

        apple2, xapple2 - Apple ][+ and //e emulator
 

SYNOPSIS

        apple2
 
        xapple2 [ -noshm ]
 

DESCRIPTION

        apple2  (svgalib)  and  xapple2  (X11) both emulate a 64k Apple ][+ and
        128k Apple //e computer (the latter only if //e support  compiled  in).
        To  use  the  emulator you need to acquire the original ][+ and //e ROM
        files which are not distributed due to copyright reasons.  The emulator
        reads  standard  143360-byte and 232960-byte disk image files with .dsk
        and .nib suffixes respectively.  You can also change  any  images  with
        the extension .do to .dsk and they will work too.
 
        There are only a few command line options:
 
        -noshm This  forces  the  X11  version to not use the MITSHM extension.
               This may degrade the speed of the emulator but allow you to  run
               it remote.
        The emulator reads user preferences from a .apple2 file located in your
        home directory.  Copy the .apple2 file that comes distributed with  the
        emulator  to your home directory.  You can edit the settings using your
        favorite editor, but most of the settings can be  tweaked  from  within
        the emulator (see menus section below).
 
        speed  Speed  of  emulation,  1  -  XXX.   (Actually this is an inverse
               delay-loop counter).  1 is slow, and XXX is as fast as  can  be.
               A  delay loop is needed to bring the emulation rate down to near
               what would be considered a normal Apple ][ speed.  The max speed
               value should be determined by YOU when you compile the emulator.
               For <= 100Mhz Pentium systems, I personally like a max value  of
               100  with  a  normal  apple  ][ speed somewhere in the 70s.  For
               faster machines, try larger ranges.
 
        mode   Starting emulation mode.   One  of  "][+",  "][+  undocumented",
               "//e".   You can also dynamically change the emulation mode from
               within the emulator.
 
        disk path
               Toplevel path of  disk  images  directory.   Personally  I  like
               /usr/local/games/apple2/disks.
 
        color  Black/white, lazy color, color, lazy interpolated, interpolated.
 
        sound  Off, pc speaker.
 
        joystick
               Off, linear, pc joystick.
 
        joystick range
               2 - 256.  Range of the joystick values.  Good settings  are  256
               and  sometimes  128,  with  centers  at 128 and 64 respectively.
               This often depends on the game.
 
        origin_x
               X coordinate origin.  128 is good for many games with a range of
               256.  Others like 64 with a range of 128.
 
        origin_y
               Y coordinate origin.  128 is good for many games with a range of
               256.  Others like 64 with a range of 128.
 
        pc joystick parms
               You can configure this from within  the  emulator.   Select  the
               ’Calibrate’ option from the F10 menu.  If the emulator complains
               that it cannot open the joystick device, make sure the module is
               loaded.  This option is only valid if you’ve compiled the emula‐
               tor with -DPC_JOYSTICK.
 
        sensitivity
               1% - 100%.  This value is used for the emulated  joystick  using
               the numeric keypad.
 
        system path
               The  directory holding the rom files.  The emulator won’t run if
               this is not set properly.  You can only change this  by  editing
               the .apple2 file.
 
        So here is an example .apple2 file:
             speed = 72
             mode = ][+
             disk path = /usr/local/games/apple2/disks
             color = interpolated
             sound = pc speaker
             joystick = pc joystick
             joystick range = 256
             origin_x = 128
             origin_y = 128
             pc joystick parms = 767 693 1344 28 1454 28 13
             sensitivity = 13%
             system path = /usr/local/games/apple2/rom
        The emulator requires several ROM files to run.
 
        apple_II.rom
               You need this file for basic ][+ emulation.  It contains the 12K
               ROM of your Apple ][+. It is not distributed  due  to  copyright
               issues,  so  you  have to get this file on your own. If you have
               been running another apple2 emulator, you can  most  likely  use
               its  ROM files directly.  This file is a memory dump of the con‐
               secutive addresses from D000 to FFFF of  the  Apple  ][+.   This
               file  may  also  be named apple.rom or apple2.rom, but is refer‐
               enced internally as apple_II.rom.
 
        slot6.rom
               You need this file for basic disk drive emulation.   It  is  256
               byte memory dump of the consecutive addresses from C600 to C6FF.
               This file is not distributed  again  due  to  copyright  issues.
               This  file  may  also be named controller.rom, but is referenced
               internally as slot6.rom.
 
        apple_IIe.rom
               If //e support was not compiled into the emulator, then  you  do
               not need this file.  It is the 32K ROM of your 128k Apple //e, a
               dump of main memory (bank 0)  addresses  C000-FFFF  concatenated
               with auxiliary memory (bank 1) addresses C000-FFFF.  Because the
               apple_IIe.rom contains the C600  slot,  you  can  construct  the
               slot6.rom file from this one. The apple_IIe.rom file may also be
               named apple2e.rom but is referenced internally as apple_IIe.rom.
 
        character.rom
               A  2048  byte  ][+ character rom file.  This file is distributed
               with the emulator.
        The emulator reads standard DOS3.3-order 143360 byte ’.dsk’ images  and
        raw-nibble  232960  byte ’.nib’ images.  The emulator can handle images
        which are gzip’ed as long as the suffixes are ’.dsk.gz’  and  ’.nib.gz’
        respectively.   The emulator simply assumes that /bin/gzip is available
        to compress/decompress these images in place as  needed  and  that  you
        have permission to do so.
 
        The  images  are  raw  binary dumps, containing the tracks from 0 to 34
        from the original 5.25 disk.  For the standard 143360 byte ’.dsk’  for‐
        mat  each track is partitioned into sectors of 256 bytes, numbered from
        0 to 15.
 
        The raw nibblized 232960-byte images are usually made of programs  that
        have  non-standard  formatting as a means of copy protection.  The nib‐
        blized format attempts to preserve  the  non-standard  format,  and  so
        defeats the copy protection without "cracking" the program.
 
        To  transfer Apple ][ diskettes into one of these formats requires that
        you own an original Apple ][. Since the drives provided by the IBM PC’s
        are  not compatible with the original Apple ][ drives there are no con‐
        version programs directly available. If you have used  other  Apple  ][
        emulators it is most likely that the files will work with this emulator
        too. For more information on  Apple  ][  disk  formats  and  such,  see
        Beneath  Apple  DOS by Don Worth and Pieter Lechner, published long ago
        by Quality Software.
        F1     Interface to switch disk in Drive A, Slot 6.  Arrow  keys  navi‐
               gate  the  selection.  If the disk highlighted is already in the
               drive, it will have a <rw1> or <r1> tag after the name  indicat‐
               ing  read/write  or read-only access.  Select this disk to eject
               it.  To select a disk, you can press ’w’ or RETURN to insert  it
               into  the  drive.  Pressing ’w’ will attempt to open the disk as
               read/write (if you have permission to do so).   Pressing  RETURN
               defaults  to  opening  the  disk read-only.  Press ESC to accept
               current settings and exit the menu.
 
        F2     Interface to switch disk in Drive B, Slot 6.  Same  controls  as
               for F1.
 
        F4     Pause the emulation.  The Pause/Break key will also work.  Hit a
               key to resume.
 
        F5     Display the Apple ][+ or //e keyboard layout.
 
        F7     Enter the Debugger console (if this support  was  compiled  into
               the program).  See the file DEBUGGER that came with the emulator
               for command information.
 
        F9     Toggles between maximum speed and  configured  speed.   This  is
               useful  to  ’fastboot’  programs,  and  then slip back to normal
               Apple ][ speed.
 
        F10    General parameter settings  menu,  including  the  all-important
               QUIT  option.   You  can  edit  most  of  the parameters in your
               .apple2 file from this menu.  Two options worth  mentioning  are
               the  ’Calibrate’  and ’JS Sample’ options.  ’Calibrate’ lets you
               calibrate the PC Joystick device.  ’JS Sample’ lets you set  the
               sample rate of the PC Joystick device.  ’Save’ lets you save the
               settings to your .apple2 file.
 
        Special Keys
               The key  combination  Ctrl-’PrintScrn/SysReq’  will  reboot  the
               machine.   The  Ctrl-’Pause/Break’  combination  will  reset the
               machine.  Remember that ’Pause/Break’ alone  will  pause  emula‐
               tion.  AltLeft and AltRight keys correspond to the OpenApple and
               ClosedApple keys (joystick buttons 0 & 1).  NOTE:  In  //e  mode
               try Ctrl-AltRight-’Pause/Break’ sequence for a system self-test.
               The numeric keypad is used for emulated joystick movement.
        See the PROBLEMS file that came with the code.
 
        Using the joystick for some disk  images  is  problematic.   Apparently
        there  is  a  bug  in Apple ][’s where reading values from the joystick
        ports too quickly results in a smaller  value  than  normal.   Unfortu‐
        nately  the  emulator  doesn’t emulate this bug in the machine, but you
        can mostly get the same effect by changing the range of  the  joystick.
        For  instance, games like Space Rogue and Airheart like a range of 0x80
        with the center around 0x40.  Most other games will  like  a  range  of
        0x100 with the center around 0x80.
 
        Under  X,  you  may notice that some keys are not working as advertised
        (Pause/Break as reboot for instance).  Make sure that  these  keys  are
        mapped.  (Run xmodmap -pke for the current mapping).
        More  information  is  available  in  the online newsgroups comp.emula‐
        tors.apple2, and comp.sys.apple2.
 
        See also:
 
        Apple //e Technical Reference Manual
 
        Beneath Apple DOS
 
        Beneath Apple ProDOS
 

AUTHORS

        Apple //e support  and  revisions  v006,  v005,  v004,  v003  by  Aaron
        Culliney  (aculline@bbn.com).   Revision v002 by Stephen Lee.  Original
        version(s) by Alexander Jean-Claude Bottema.
 

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