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NAME

        sail - multi-user wooden ships and iron men
 

SYNOPSIS

        sail [ -s [ -l ] ] [ -x ] [ -b ] [ num ]
 

DESCRIPTION

        Sail is a computer version of Avalon Hill’s game of fighting sail orig‐
        inally developed by S. Craig Taylor.
 
        Players of Sail take command of an old fashioned Man of War  and  fight
        other  players or the computer.  They may re-enact one of the many his‐
        torical sea battles recorded in the game, or they  can  choose  a  fic‐
        tional battle.
 
        As a sea captain in the Sail Navy, the player has complete control over
        the workings of his ship.  He must order every maneuver, change the set
        of  his  sails,  and  judge  the right moment to let loose the terrible
        destruction of his broadsides.  In addition to fighting the  enemy,  he
        must  harness the powers of the wind and sea to make them work for him.
        The outcome of many battles during the age of sail was decided  by  the
        ability of one captain to hold the ‘weather gage.’
 
        The flags are:
 
        -s     Print the names and ships of the top ten sailors.
 
        -l     Show the login name.  Only effective with -s.
 
        -x     Play the first available ship instead of prompting for a choice.
 
        -b     No bells.
 

IMPLEMENTATION

        Sail is really two programs in one.  Each player starts  up  a  process
        which  runs  his own ship.  In addition, a driver process is forked (by
        the first player) to run the computer ships and  take  care  of  global
        bookkeeping.
 
        Because  the driver must calculate moves for each ship it controls, the
        more ships the computer is playing, the slower the game will appear.
 
        If a player joins a game in progress,  he  will  synchronize  with  the
        other  players  (a  rather  slow process for everyone), and then he may
        play along with the rest.
 
        To implement a multi-user game in Version 7 UNIX, which was the operat‐
        ing  system  Sail  was first written under, the communicating processes
        must use a common temporary file as a place to read and write messages.
        In  addition,  a locking mechanism must be provided to ensure exclusive
        access to the shared file.  For example, Sail  uses  a  temporary  file
        named  /tmp/#sailsink.21  for scenario 21, and corresponding file names
        for the other scenarios.  To provide exclusive access to the  temporary
        file,  Sail  uses a technique stolen from an old game called "pubcaves"
        by Jeff Cohen.  Processes do a busy wait in the loop
 
                   for (n = 0; link(sync_file, sync_lock)  0  n  30; n++)
sleep(2);
 
        until they are able to create a  link  to  a  file  named  "/tmp/#sail‐
        lock.??".   The  "??"  correspond  to  the scenario number of the game.
        Since UNIX guarantees that a link will point  to  only  one  file,  the
        process that succeeds in linking will have exclusive access to the tem‐
        porary file.
 
        Whether or not this really works is open to speculation.  When  ucbmiro
        was rebooted after a crash, the file system check program found 3 links
        between the Sail temporary file and its link file.
        When players do something of global interest, such as moving or firing,
        the driver must coordinate the action with the other ships in the game.
        For example, if a player wants to  move  in  a  certain  direction,  he
        writes  a message into the temporary file requesting the driver to move
        his ship.  Each ‘‘turn,’’ the driver reads all the messages  sent  from
        the  players  and  decides what happened.  It then writes back into the
        temporary file new values of variables, etc.
 
        The most noticeable effect this communication has on the  game  is  the
        delay  in  moving.  Suppose a player types a move for his ship and hits
        return.  What happens then?  The player process saves up messages to be
        written  to the temporary file in a buffer.  Every 7 seconds or so, the
        player process gets exclusive access to the temporary file  and  writes
        out  its  buffer to the file.  The driver, running asynchronously, must
        read in the movement command, process it, and write  out  the  results.
        This takes two exclusive accesses to the temporary file.  Finally, when
        the player process gets around to doing another 7  second  update,  the
        results of the move are displayed on the screen.  Hence, every movement
        requires four exclusive accesses to the temporary file (anywhere from 7
        to  21  seconds  depending  upon asynchrony) before the player sees the
        results of his moves.
 
        In practice, the delays are not  as  annoying  as  they  would  appear.
        There  is  room  for  "pipelining"  in  the movement.  After the player
        writes out a first movement message, a second movement command can then
        be issued.  The first message will be in the temporary file waiting for
        the driver, and the second will be in the file  buffer  waiting  to  be
        written  to the file.  Thus, by always typing moves a turn ahead of the
        time, the player can sail around quite quickly.
 
        If the player types several movement  commands  between  two  7  second
        updates,  only  the  last  movement  command  typed will be seen by the
        driver.  Movement commands within  the  same  update  "overwrite"  each
        other, in a sense.
        I  wrote  the first version of Sail on a PDP-11/70 in the fall of 1980.
        Needless to say, the code was horrendous, not portable in any sense  of
        the  word,  and  didn’t work.  The program was not very modular and had
        fseeks() and fwrites() every few lines.   After  a  tremendous  rewrite
        from  the  top down, I got the first working version up by 1981.  There
        were several annoying bugs concerning  firing  broadsides  and  finding
        angles.  Sail uses no floating point, by the way, so the direction rou‐
        tines are rather tricky.  Ed Wang rewrote my angle() routine in 1981 to
        be  more  correct  (although  it  still doesn’t work perfectly), and he
        added code to let a player select which ship he wanted at the start  of
        the game (instead of the first one available).
 
        Captain Happy (Craig Leres) is responsible for making Sail portable for
        the first time.  This was no easy task, by the way.  Constants  like  2
        and  10 were very frequent in the code.  I also became famous for using
        "Riggle Memorial Structures" in Sail.  Many of my structure  references
        are  so long that they run off the line printer page.  Here is an exam‐
        ple, if you promise not to laugh.
 
              specs[scene[flog.fgamenum].ship[flog.fshipnum].shipnum].pts
 
        Sail received its fourth and most thorough rewrite in  the  summer  and
        fall  of  1983.  Ed Wang rewrote and modularized the code (a monumental
        feat) almost from scratch.  Although he introduced many new  bugs,  the
        final  result  was  very  much cleaner and (?) faster.  He added window
        movement commands and find ship commands.
        Old Square Riggers were very maneuverable ships  capable  of  intricate
        sailing.   Their  only disadvantage was an inability to sail very close
        to the wind.  The design of a wooden ship allowed only for the guns  to
        bear  to the left and right sides.  A few guns of small aspect (usually
        6 or 9 pounders) could point forward, but their effect was  small  com‐
        pared  to  a  68  gun  broadside  of  24 or 32 pounders.  The guns bear
        approximately like so:
 
               \
                b----------------
            ---0
                \
                 \
                  \     up to a range of ten (for round shot)
                   \
                    \
                     \
 
        An interesting phenomenon occurred when a broadside was fired down  the
        length  of an enemy ship.  The shot tended to bounce along the deck and
        did several times more damage.  This  phenomenon  was  called  a  rake.
        Because the bows of a ship are very strong and present a smaller target
        than the stern, a stern rake (firing from the stern to the bow)  causes
        more damage than a bow rake.
 
                                b
                               00   ----  Stern rake!
                                 a
 
        Most  ships were equipped with carronades, which were very large, close
        range cannons.  American ships from the revolution  until  the  War  of
        1812 were almost entirely armed with carronades.
 
        The  period of history covered in Sail is approximately from the 1770’s
        until the end of Napoleonic France in 1815.  There are  many  excellent
        books  about  the age of sail.  My favorite author is Captain Frederick
        Marryat.  More contemporary authors include C.S. Forester and Alexander
        Kent.
 
        Fighting  ships  came  in several sizes classed by armament.  The main‐
        stays of any fleet were its "Ships of the Line",  or  "Line  of  Battle
        Ships".   They  were  so  named  because these ships fought together in
        great lines.  They were close enough for mutual support, yet every ship
        could fire both its broadsides.  We get the modern words "ocean liner,"
        or "liner," and "battleship" from "ship of the line."  The most  common
        size  was  the  74  gun two decked ship of the line.  The two gun decks
        usually mounted 18 and 24 pounder guns.
 
        The pride of the fleet were the first rates.   These  were  huge  three
        decked  ships  of  the  line  mounting 80 to 136 guns.  The guns in the
        three tiers were usually 18, 24, and 32 pounders in that order from top
        to bottom.
 
        Various other ships came next.  They were almost all "razees," or ships
        of the line with one deck sawed off.  They mounted 40-64 guns and  were
        a poor cross between a frigate and a line of battle ship.  They neither
        had the speed of the former nor the firepower of the latter.
 
        Next came the "eyes  of  the  fleet."   Frigates  came  in  many  sizes
        mounting  anywhere  from  32 to 44 guns.  They were very handy vessels.
        They could outsail  anything  bigger  and  outshoot  anything  smaller.
        Frigates  didn’t  fight in lines of battle as the much bigger 74’s did.
        Instead, they harassed the enemy’s rear  or  captured  crippled  ships.
        They  were  much  more  useful in missions away from the fleet, such as
        cutting out expeditions or boat actions.  They could hit hard  and  get
        away fast.
 
        Lastly,  there  were  the  corvettes,  sloops,  and  brigs.  These were
        smaller ships mounting typically fewer than 20 guns.   A  corvette  was
        only  slightly smaller than a frigate, so one might have up to 30 guns.
        Sloops were used for carrying dispatches  or  passengers.   Brigs  were
        something you built for land-locked lakes.
        Ships  in Sail are represented by two characters.  One character repre‐
        sents the bow of the ship, and the other represents the  stern.   Ships
        have  nationalities  and  numbers.   The first ship of a nationality is
        number 0, the second number 1, etc.  Therefore, the first British  ship
        in a game would be printed as "b0".  The second Brit would be "b1", and
        the fifth Don would be "s4".
 
        Ships can set normal sails, called Battle Sails, or bend on extra  can‐
        vas  called  Full  Sails.   A ship under full sail is a beautiful sight
        indeed, and it can move much faster than a  ship  under  Battle  Sails.
        The  only  trouble is, with full sails set, there is so much tension on
        sail and rigging that a well aimed round shot can  burst  a  sail  into
        ribbons  where  it would only cause a little hole in a loose sail.  For
        this reason, rigging damage is doubled on a ship with full  sails  set.
        Don’t  let  that  discourage you from using full sails.  I like to keep
        them up right into the heat of battle.  A ship with full sails set  has
        a  capital  letter  for its nationality.  E.g., a Frog, "f0", with full
        sails set would be printed as "F0".
 
        When a ship is battered into  a  listing  hulk,  the  last  man  aboard
        "strikes  the  colors."   This ceremony is the ship’s formal surrender.
        The nationality character of a surrendered  ship  is  printed  as  "!".
        E.g., the Frog of our last example would soon be "!0".
 
        A  ship has a random chance of catching fire or sinking when it reaches
        the stage of listing hulk.  A sinking ship has a "~"  printed  for  its
        nationality, and a ship on fire and about to explode has a "#" printed.
 
        Captured ships become the nationality of the prize crew.  Therefore, if
        an American ship captures a British ship, the British ship will have an
        "a" printed for its nationality.   In  addition,  the  ship  number  is
        changed  to  "","’", "(", ,")", "*", or "+" depending upon the original
        number, be it 0,1,2,3,4, or 5.  E.g., the "b0" captured by an  American
        becomes the "a".  The "s4" captured by a Frog becomes the "f*".
 
        The  ultimate  example  is, of course, an exploding Brit captured by an
        American: "#".
 

MOVEMENT

        Movement is the most confusing part of Sail to many.  Ships can head in
        8 directions:
 
                                         0      0      0
                b       b       b0      b       b       b       0b      b
                0        0                                             0
 
        The  stern  of a ship moves when it turns.  The bow remains stationary.
        Ships can  always  turn,  regardless  of  the  wind  (unless  they  are
        becalmed).   All ships drift when they lose headway.  If a ship doesn’t
        move forward at all for two turns, it will begin to drift.  If  a  ship
        has  begun  to  drift, then it must move forward before it turns, if it
        plans to do more than make a right or left turn, which is always possi‐
        ble.
 
        Movement  commands to Sail are a string of forward moves and turns.  An
        example is "l3".  It will turn a ship left and then  move  it  ahead  3
        spaces.   In  the drawing above, the "b0" made 7 successive left turns.
        When Sail prompts you for a move, it prints three characters of import.
        E.g.,
             move (7, 4):
        The first number is the maximum number of moves you can make, including
        turns.  The second number is the maximum number of turns you can  make.
        Between  the numbers is sometimes printed a quote "’".  If the quote is
        present, it means that your ship has been drifting, and you  must  move
        ahead  to regain headway before you turn (see note above).  Some of the
        possible moves for the example above are as follows:
 
             move (7, 4): 7
             move (7, 4): 1
             move (7, 4): d      /* drift, or do nothing */
             move (7, 4): 6r
             move (7, 4): 5r1
             move (7, 4): 4r1r
             move (7, 4): l1r1r2
             move (7, 4): 1r1r1r1
 
        Because square riggers performed so poorly sailing into the wind, if at
        any  point  in  a movement command you turn into the wind, the movement
        stops there.  E.g.,
 
             move (7, 4): l1l4
             Movement Error;
             Helm: l1l
 
        Moreover, whenever you make a turn, your movement  allowance  drops  to
        min(what’s  left,  what you would have at the new attitude).  In short,
        if you turn closer to the wind, you most likely won’t be able  to  sail
        the full allowance printed in the "move" prompt.
 
        Old  sailing  captains had to keep an eye constantly on the wind.  Cap‐
        tains in Sail are no different.  A ship’s ability to  move  depends  on
        its  attitude to the wind.  The best angle possible is to have the wind
        off your quarter, that is, just off the stern.  The direction  rose  on
        the  side  of  the screen gives the possible movements for your ship at
        all positions to the wind.  Battle sail speeds  are  given  first,  and
        full sail speeds are given in parenthesis.
 
1(2)
                            \|/
-^-3(6)
                            /|\
4(7)
3(6)
 
        Pretend  the bow of your ship (the "^") is pointing upward and the wind
        is blowing from the bottom to the top of the page.  The numbers at  the
"3(6)"  will be your speed under battle or full sails in such a
"4(7)".
"3(6)".  If the wind is off your bow,
"1(2)".  Facing into the wind, you can’t move at
        all.  Ships facing into the wind were said to be "in irons".
        The  windspeed  and  direction is displayed as a little weather vane on
        the side of the screen.  The number in the middle of the vane indicates
        the  wind speed, and the + to - indicates the wind direction.  The wind
        blows from the + sign (high pressure) to the  -  sign  (low  pressure).
        E.g.,
 
                            |
                            3
                            +
 
        The  wind  speeds  are  0  =  becalmed,  1 = light breeze, 2 = moderate
        breeze, 3 = fresh breeze, 4 = strong breeze, 5 = gale, 6 = full gale, 7
        = hurricane.  If a hurricane shows up, all ships are destroyed.
        If  two  ships collide, they run the risk of becoming tangled together.
        This is called "fouling."  Fouled ships are stuck together, and neither
        can  move.   They can unfoul each other if they want to.  Boarding par‐
        ties can only be sent across to ships when the antagonists  are  either
        fouled or grappled.
 
        Ships  can  grapple each other by throwing grapnels into the rigging of
        the other.
 
        The number of fouls and grapples you have are displayed  on  the  upper
        right of the screen.
 

BOARDING

        Boarding  was  a  very costly venture in terms of human life.  Boarding
        parties may be formed in Sail to either  board  an  enemy  ship  or  to
        defend your own ship against attack.  Men organized as Defensive Board‐
        ing Parties fight twice as hard to save their ship as men left  unorga‐
        nized.
 
        The  boarding  strength of a crew depends upon its quality and upon the
        number of men sent.
        The British seaman was world renowned for his sailing abilities.  Amer‐
        ican  sailors,  however,  were  actually  the best seamen in the world.
        Because the American Navy offered twice the wages of  the  Royal  Navy,
        British  seamen who liked the sea defected to America by the thousands.
 
        In Sail, crew quality is quantized into 5 energy levels.  "Elite" crews
        can  outshoot  and outfight all other sailors.  "Crack" crews are next.
        "Mundane" crews are average, and "Green" and "Mutinous" crews are below
        average.  A good rule of thumb is that "Crack" or "Elite" crews get one
        extra hit per broadside compared to "Mundane" crews.  Don’t expect  too
        much from "Green" crews.
 

BROADSIDES

        Your  two  broadsides  may  be  loaded  with four kinds of shot: grape,
        chain, round, and double.  You have guns and  carronades  in  both  the
        port  and starboard batteries.  Carronades only have a range of two, so
        you have to get in close to be able to fire them.  You have the  choice
        of  firing at the hull or rigging of another ship.  If the range of the
        ship is greater than 6, then you may only shoot at the rigging.
 
        The types of shot and their advantages are:
 

ROUND

        Range of 10.  Good for hull or rigging hits.
 

DOUBLE

        Range of 1.  Extra good for hull or rigging  hits.   Double  takes  two
        turns to load.
 

CHAIN

        Range of 3.  Excellent for tearing down rigging.  Cannot damage hull or
        guns, though.
 

GRAPE

        Range of 1.  Sometimes devastating against enemy crews.
 
        On the side of the screen is displayed  some  vital  information  about
        your ship:
 
                       Load  D! R!
                       Hull  9
                       Crew  4  4  2
                       Guns  4  4
                       Carr  2  2
                       Rigg  5 5 5 5
 
        "Load" shows what your port (left) and starboard (right) broadsides are
        loaded with.  A "!" after the type of shot indicates that it is an ini‐
        tial  broadside.  Initial broadside were loaded with care before battle
        and before the decks ran red with blood.   As  a  consequence,  initial
        broadsides are a little more effective than broadsides loaded later.  A
        "*" after the type of shot indicates that the gun crews are still load‐
        ing  it,  and you cannot fire yet.  "Hull" shows how much hull you have
        left.  "Crew" shows your three sections of crew.   As  your  crew  dies
        off,  your ability to fire decreases.  "Guns" and "Carr" show your port
        and starboard guns.  As you lose guns, your ability to fire  decreases.
        "Rigg"  shows  how much rigging you have on your 3 or 4 masts.  As rig‐
        ging is shot away, you lose mobility.
        It is very dramatic when a ship fires its  thunderous  broadsides,  but
        the  mere  opportunity  to fire them does not guarantee any hits.  Many
        factors influence the destructive force of a broadside.  First of  all,
        and the chief factor, is distance.  It is harder to hit a ship at range
        ten than it is to hit one sloshing alongside.  Next is raking.   Raking
        fire,  as  mentioned before, can sometimes dismast a ship at range ten.
        Next, crew size and quality affects the damage  done  by  a  broadside.
        The  number  of  guns  firing  also  bears  on  the point, so to speak.
        Lastly, weather affects the accuracy of a broadside.  If the  seas  are
        high  (5 or 6), then the lower gunports of ships of the line can’t even
        be opened to run out the guns.  This gives  frigates  and  other  flush
        decked  vessels  an  advantage in a storm.  The scenario Pellew vs. The
        Droits de L’Homme takes advantage of this peculiar circumstance.
 

REPAIRS

        Repairs may be made to your Hull, Guns, and Rigging at the slow rate of
        two  points  per  three turns.  The message "Repairs Completed" will be
        printed if no more repairs can be made.
        Computer ships in Sail follow all the rules above  with  a  few  excep‐
        tions.   Computer  ships never repair damage.  If they did, the players
        could never beat them.  They play well enough as it is.  As a  consola‐
        tion,  the  computer ships can fire double shot every turn.  That fluke
        is a good reason to keep your distance.  The  Driver  figures  out  the
        moves of the computer ships.  It computes them with a typical A.I. dis‐
        tance function and a depth first search to find  the  maximum  "score."
        It  seems  to  work fairly well, although I’ll be the first to admit it
        isn’t perfect.
        Commands are given to Sail by typing a single character.  You will then
        be  prompted  for  further input.  A brief summary of the commands fol‐
        lows.
            ’f’  Fire broadsides if they bear
            ’l’  Reload
            ’L’  Unload broadsides (to change ammo)
            ’m’  Move
            ’i’  Print the closest ship
            ’I’  Print all ships
            ’F’  Find a particular ship or ships (e.g. "a?" for all Americans)
            ’s’  Send a message around the fleet
            ’b’  Attempt to board an enemy ship
            ’B’  Recall boarding parties
            ’c’  Change set of sail
            ’r’  Repair
            ’u’  Attempt to unfoul
            ’g’  Grapple/ungrapple
            ’v’  Print version number of game
           ’^L’  Redraw screen
            ’Q’  Quit
 
            ’C’      Center your ship in the window
            ’U’        Move window up
            ’D’,’N’  Move window down
            ’H’        Move window left
            ’J’        Move window right
            ’S’      Toggle window to follow your ship or stay where it is
 

SCENARIOS

        Here is a summary of the scenarios in Sail:
        Wind from the N, blowing a fresh breeze.
 
        (a) Ranger            19 gun Sloop (crack crew) (7 pts)
        (b) Drake             17 gun Sloop (crack crew) (6 pts)
        Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.
 
        This is John Paul Jones’ first  famous  battle.   Aboard  the  Bonhomme
        Richard,  he  was  able  to overcome the Serapis’s greater firepower by
        quickly boarding her.
 
        (a) Bonhomme Rich     42 gun Corvette (crack crew) (11 pts)
        (b) Serapis           44 gun Frigate (crack crew) (12 pts)
        Wind from the N, blowing a gale.
 
        (b) America           64 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (20 pts)
        (b) Befford           74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
        (b) Adamant           50 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (17 pts)
        (b) London            98 gun 3 Decker SOL (crack crew) (28 pts)
        (b) Royal Oak         74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
        (f) Neptune           74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
        (f) Duc de Bourgogne  80 gun 3 Decker SOL (average crew) (27 pts)
        (f) Conquerant        74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
        (f) Provence          64 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (18 pts)
        (f) Romulus           44 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (10 pts)
        Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.
 
        (b) Monmouth          74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
        (b) Hero              74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
        (b) Isis              50 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (17 pts)
        (b) Superb            74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (27 pts)
        (b) Burford           74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
        (f) Flamband          50 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (14 pts)
        (f) Annibal           74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
        (f) Severe            64 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (18 pts)
        (f) Brilliant         80 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (31 pts)
        (f) Sphinx            80 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (27 pts)
        Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.
 
        (b) Nymphe            36 gun Frigate (crack crew) (11 pts)
        (f) Cleopatre         36 gun Frigate (average crew) (10 pts)
        Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.
        (b) Mars              74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
        (f) Hercule           74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (23 pts)
        Wind from the N, blowing a fresh breeze.
 
        (b) Ambuscade         32 gun Frigate (average crew) (9 pts)
        (f) Baionnaise        24 gun Corvette (average crew) (9 pts)
        Wind from the S, blowing a gale.
 
        (a) Constellation     38 gun Corvette (elite crew) (17 pts)
        (f) Insurgent         36 gun Corvette (average crew) (11 pts)
        Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.
 
        (a) Constellation     38 gun Corvette (elite crew) (17 pts)
        (f) Vengeance         40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)
        Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.
 
        (b) Amphion           32 gun Frigate (elite crew) (13 pts)
        (b) Active            38 gun Frigate (elite crew) (18 pts)
        (b) Volage            22 gun Frigate (elite crew) (11 pts)
        (b) Cerberus          32 gun Frigate (elite crew) (13 pts)
        (f) Favorite          40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)
        (f) Flore             40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)
        (f) Danae             40 gun Frigate (crack crew) (17 pts)
        (f) Bellona           32 gun Frigate (green crew) (9 pts)
        (f) Corona            40 gun Frigate (green crew) (12 pts)
        (f) Carolina          32 gun Frigate (green crew) (7 pts)
        Wind from the SW, blowing a gale.
 
        (a) Constitution      44 gun Corvette (elite crew) (24 pts)
        (b) Guerriere         38 gun Frigate (crack crew) (15 pts)
        Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.
 
        (a) United States     44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (24 pts)
        (b) Macedonian        38 gun Frigate (crack crew) (16 pts)
        Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.
 
        (a) Constitution      44 gun Corvette (elite crew) (24 pts)
        (b) Java              38 gun Corvette (crack crew) (19 pts)
        Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.
 
        (a) Chesapeake        38 gun Frigate (average crew) (14 pts)
        (b) Shannon           38 gun Frigate (elite crew) (17 pts)
        Wind from the S, blowing a light breeze.
 
        (a) Lawrence          20 gun Sloop (crack crew) (9 pts)
        (a) Niagara           20 gun Sloop (elite crew) (12 pts)
        (b) Lady Prevost      13 gun Brig (crack crew) (5 pts)
        (b) Detroit           19 gun Sloop (crack crew) (7 pts)
        (b) Q. Charlotte      17 gun Sloop (crack crew) (6 pts)
        Wind from the S, blowing a light breeze.
 
        (a) Wasp              20 gun Sloop (elite crew) (12 pts)
        (b) Reindeer          18 gun Sloop (elite crew) (9 pts)
        Wind from the S, blowing a moderate breeze.
 
        (a) Constitution      44 gun Corvette (elite crew) (24 pts)  (b)  Cyane
        24  gun  Sloop (crack crew) (11 pts) (b) Levant            20 gun Sloop
        (crack crew) (10 pts)
        Wind from the N, blowing a gale.
 
        (b) Indefatigable     44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (14 pts)
        (b) Amazon            36 gun Frigate (crack crew) (14 pts)
        (f) Droits L’Hom      74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
 

Algeciras:

        Wind from the SW, blowing a moderate breeze.
 
        (b) Caesar            80 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (31 pts)
        (b) Pompee            74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (27 pts)
        (b) Spencer           74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
        (b) Hannibal          98 gun 3 Decker SOL (crack crew) (28 pts)
        (s) Real-Carlos       112 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (27 pts)
        (s) San Fernando      96 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (24 pts)
        (s) Argonauta         80 gun Ship of the Line (green crew) (23 pts)
        (s) San Augustine     74 gun Ship of the Line (green crew) (20 pts)
        (f) Indomptable       80 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (27 pts)
        (f) Desaix            74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
        Wind from the N, blowing a fresh breeze.
 
        (a) Saratoga          26 gun Sloop (crack crew) (12 pts)
        (a) Eagle             20 gun Sloop (crack crew) (11 pts)
        (a) Ticonderoga       17 gun Sloop (crack crew) (9 pts)
        (a) Preble            7 gun Brig (crack crew) (4 pts)
        (b) Confiance         37 gun Frigate (crack crew) (14 pts)
        (b) Linnet            16 gun Sloop (elite crew) (10 pts)
        (b) Chubb             11 gun Brig (crack crew) (5 pts)
        Wind from the N, blowing a fresh breeze.
 
        (a) President         44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (24 pts)
        (b) Endymion          40 gun Frigate (crack crew) (17 pts)
        (b) Pomone            44 gun Frigate (crack crew) (20 pts)
        (b) Tenedos           38 gun Frigate (crack crew) (15 pts)
        Wind from the E, blowing a gale.
 
        A scenario for you Horny fans.  Remember, he sank the Natividad against
        heavy odds and winds.  Hint: don’t try to board the Natividad, her crew
        is much bigger, albeit green.
 
        (b) Lydia             36 gun Frigate (elite crew) (13 pts)
        (s) Natividad         50 gun Ship of the Line (green crew) (14 pts)
        Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.
 
        Just for fun, take the Piece of cake.
 
        (s) Piece of Cake     24 gun Corvette (average crew) (9 pts)
        (f) Flying Dutchy     120 gun 3 Decker SOL (elite crew) (43 pts)
        Wind from the S, blowing a strong breeze.
 
        (a) USS Scurvy        136 gun 3 Decker SOL (mutinous crew) (27 pts)
        (b) HMS Tahiti        120 gun 3 Decker SOL (elite crew) (43 pts)
        (s) Australian        32 gun Frigate (average crew) (9 pts)
        (f) Bikini Atoll      7 gun Brig (crack crew) (4 pts)
        Wind from the E, blowing a fresh breeze.
 
        The only battle Hornblower ever lost.  He was able to dismast one  ship
        and stern rake the others though.  See if you can do as well.
 
        (b) Sutherland        74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
        (f) Turenne           80 gun 3 Decker SOL (average crew) (27 pts)
        (f) Nightmare         74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
        (f) Paris             112 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (27 pts)
        (f) Napoleon          74 gun Ship of the Line (green crew) (20 pts)
        Wind from the NE, blowing a strong breeze.
 
        (a) Concord           80 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (27 pts)
        (a) Berkeley          98 gun 3 Decker SOL (crack crew) (28 pts)
        (b) Thames            120 gun 3 Decker SOL (elite crew) (43 pts)
        (s) Madrid            112 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (27 pts)
        (f) Musket            80 gun 3 Decker SOL (average crew) (27 pts)
        Wind from the SE, blowing a fresh breeze.
 
        Watch that little Cypress go!
 
        (a) Alligator         120 gun 3 Decker SOL (elite crew) (43 pts)
        (b) Firefly           74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (27 pts)
        (b) Cypress           44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (14 pts)
        Wind from the N, blowing a fresh breeze.
 
        (b) Shark             64 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (18 pts)
        (f) Coral Snake       44 gun Corvette (elite crew) (24 pts)
        (f) Sea Lion          44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (24 pts)
        Wind from the NW, blowing a fresh breeze.
 
        This one is dedicated to Richard Basehart and David Hedison.
 
        (a) Seaview           120 gun 3 Decker SOL (elite crew) (43 pts)
        (a) Flying Sub        40 gun Frigate (crack crew) (17 pts)
        (b) Mermaid           136 gun 3 Decker SOL (mutinous crew) (27 pts)
        (s) Giant Squid       112 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (27 pts)
        Wind from the E, blowing a fresh breeze.
 
        (a) Killdeer          40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)
        (b) Sandpiper         40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)
        (s) Curlew            38 gun Frigate (crack crew) (16 pts)
        Wind from the E, blowing a moderate breeze.
 
        (a) Enterprise        80 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (31 pts)
        (a) Yorktown          80 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (27 pts)
        (a) Hornet            74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
        (j) Akagi             112 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (27 pts)
        (j) Kaga              96 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (24 pts)
        (j) Soryu             80 gun Ship of the Line (green crew) (23 pts)
        Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.
 
        (a) Enterprise        450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
        (a) Yorktown          450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
        (a) Reliant           450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
        (a) Galileo           450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
        (k) Kobayashi Maru    450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
        (k) Klingon II        450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
        (o) Red Orion         450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
        (o) Blue Orion        450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
 

CONCLUSION

        Sail has been a group effort.
 

AUTHOR

        Dave Riggle
 

CO-AUTHOR

        Ed Wang
 

REFITTING

        Craig Leres
 

CONSULTANTS

        Chris Guthrie
        Captain Happy
        Horatio Nelson
             and many valiant others...
 

REFERENCES

        Wooden Ships  Iron Men, by Avalon Hill
        Captain Horatio Hornblower Novels, (13 of them) by C.S. Forester
        Captain Richard Bolitho Novels, (12 of them) by Alexander Kent
        The Complete Works of Captain Frederick Marryat, (about 20) especially
              Mr. Midshipman Easy
              Peter Simple
              Jacob Faithful
              Japhet in Search of a Father
              Snarleyyow, or The Dog Fiend
              Frank Mildmay, or The Naval Officer
 

BUGS

        Probably  a  few, and please report them to "riggle@ernie.berkeley.edu"
        and "edward@ucbarpa.berkeley.edu"
 

Sections

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