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Provided by: courier-mta_0.53.3-5ubuntu1_i386

 

NAME

        makealiases - Create an alias database
 

SYNOPSIS

        makealiases  [ -protocol=protocol ] [ -alias=filename ] [ -src=pathname
        ] [ -tmp=filename ] [ -chk ] [ -dump ] [ module ]
 

DESCRIPTION

        Courier’s /etc/courier/aliases.dat file is a unified implementation  of
        sendmail-style address aliasing, qmail-style virtual domains, plus sev‐
        eral Courier-style enhancements.
 
        The term aliasing refers to substituting  one  or  more  addresses  for
        another address. A one-to-one substitution results in Courier accepting
        mail for one address, and delivering the mail  to  another  address.  A
        one-to-many  substitution  results  in  Courier  accepting mail for one
        address, and delivering a separate copy of the message to every address
        defined by the alias.
 
        /etc/courier/aliases.dat  is  a binary database file.  makealiases cre‐
        ates the binary database file by reading the aliases  from  plain  text
        files, and makealiases creates /etc/courier/aliases.dat by default.
 
        makealiases  creates  /etc/courier/aliases.dat  from one or more source
        files, which are plain text files that may be created by any text  edi‐
        tor.  The  format  of  those source files is defined below. By default,
        makealiases obtains the source text from /etc/courier/aliases. If  this
        is  a  text  file, it is used verbatim. If this is a directory (Courier
        creates it as a directory by default), all the non-hidden files in this
        directory are concatenated together.
 

OPTIONS

        -alias=filename
               Create filename, instead of /etc/courier/aliases.dat.
 
        -chk   Try  to  search  for bad addresses used in the aliases.dat file.
               This option takes some time to complete. It does not  create  an
               aliases.dat file, but instead tries to check every address spec‐
               ified by the source text file. Why  is  this  necessary?  That’s
               because  non-delivery reports will not be sent to the sender for
               failures in delivering mail to an aliased address.  This  is  by
               design.  Courier  considers aliases to be private mailing lists.
               Because non-delivery notices are not sent,  bad  addresses  will
               not be immediately detected.
 
               Note:  The  -chk  option is really effective for addresses which
               are local, because there is no real way to determine if a remote
               mail address is valid.
 
        -dump  Do  not  create aliases.dat, instead display the contents of the
               alias database, in plain text form. The  contents  will  be  the
               combined  contents  of  all the source files, with all addresses
               converted to canonical format, with duplicates removed and  sub-
               aliases expanded.
 
        -src=pathname
               Use pathname instead of /etc/courier/aliases as the source file.
               pathname can also refer to a directory. This concatenates  every
               non-hidden file in the directory.
 
        -tmp=filename
               Use    filename    as    a    temporary    file,    instead   of
               /etc/courier/aliases.tmp.  makealiases requires a temporary file
               for  its own purposes, which is automatically removed when done.
               This temporary file  MUST  reside  on  the  same  filesystem  as
               aliases.dat.  If the -alias option specifies a file on a differ‐
               ent filesystem, use this option to specify  where  to  temporary
               place  a file in the same filesystem. Because makealiases always
               uses the same name for a temporary file you cannot run more than
               one makealiases process at the same time.
 
        -protocol=protocol
               Use  an alias list that’s private to messages coming from proto‐
               col.  See below.
 
        The optional module specifies the module whose rewriting rules are used
        to  convert  E-mail  addresses into a canonical form. If not specified,
        the local module’s address rewriting rules will be used.
        Addresses in /etc/courier/aliases.dat will be checked in every message.
        Use  the  -protocol  option to create aliases that will be checked only
        for message that are received via a specific protocol, such  as  ESMTP,
        UUCP,  or locally-generated mail. This allows you, for example, to cre‐
        ate an alias such as "everyone", which is  only  avaliable  to  locally
        generated  mail,  and  does  not  work for mail received via ESMTP. The
        argument to the -protocol option is one of: esmtp, uucp, or local.
 
        Protocol-specific alias  files  are  /etc/courier/aliases-protocol.dat,
        where "protocol" is the specific protocol, such as "local", "esmtp", or
        "uucp",  and  the  source   file   read   by   makealiases   would   be
        /etc/courier/aliases-protocol.  If  the  -protocol option is specified,
        makealiases will access these files instead of /etc/courier/aliases.dat
        and /etc/courier/aliases.
        The  sources  file  used  to create the binary aliases.dat database are
        plain text files that may be created using any editor.
 
        Each alias specification takes the following form:
 
        alias: address1, address2, ...
 
        Mail received by Courier addressed to alias will be  delivered  to  the
        list  of addresses specified. The list of addresses may be split across
        multiple lines, if the second and subsequent line starts with  a  space
        character.
 
        Lines starting with the # character are ignored, they are comments.
 
        alias is not restricted to be a local address.  It may be any valid RFC
        2822 address. All addresses do not necessary have to be in a  canonical
        form.
 
        alias: :include:/absolute/pathname
 
        This  notation  reads  the  list of addresses from another file, /abso‐
        lute/pathname.  This file should contain one address  per  line  (comma
        separated addresses on the same line will also work).
 
               Note:
 
               If alias refers to a local, existing, account, this account will
               never get any mail. Any mail with the account listed as  recipi‐
               ent  will  be redirected to all the addresses specified for that
               alias. To have a copy of the  mail  delivered  to  the  account,
               define it as one of the addresses in the alias itself. For exam‐
               ple:
 
               larry: larry, moe, curly, shemp
 
               Larry will still receive his mail, but copies will will also  be
               sent  to Moe, Curly, and Shemp. If Larry wasn’t specified in the
               alias, he would never get any mail, it will all be forwarded  to
               Moe, Curly, and Shemp.
        Alias definitions may refer to other alias definitions, and makealiases
        automatically incorporates addresses from other aliases.  If  the  same
        address  is  listed  in  multiple  aliases, and two or more of them are
        specified as recipients of the same message, only one copy of the  mes‐
        sage will be delivered to the address.
        The  following  special  syntax  implements a virtual domain. A virtual
        domain redirects all mail for an entire domain to one user:
 
        @domain: user
 
        This special entry  results  in  any  recipient  address  of  the  form
        foo@domain  to be rewritten as user-foo@me, where me is the hostname of
        the machine, which we expect to be a local domain.
 
        The following examples use the alias entry  "@example.com:  john",  and
        "domain.com"  is  in the control/me file. The address "postmaster@exam‐
        ple.com" becomes  "john-postmaster@domain.com",  and  "sales-info@exam‐
        ple.com" becomes "john-sales-info@domain.com.
 
        The  intended  behavior  is  to use an actual account named john.  As a
        result of the virtual domain address rewriting,  delivery  instructions
        for   postmaster@example.com   can   now   be   specified   by   john’s
        $HOME/.courier-postmaster file, and delivery  instructions  for  sales-
        info@example.com  may be specified by $HOME/.courier-sales-info. john’s
        $HOME/.courier-default may be used to specify delivery instructions for
        any  other  address  in  the example.com domain, which does not have an
        explicit .courier file.
 
        If the alias entry was "@example.com: john-example", the  corresponding
        files   in  john’s  $HOME  directory  are  .courier-example-postmaster,
        .courier-example-sales-info,  and  .courier-example-default.  See  dot-
courier(5) for more information on .courier files.
 
               Note:
 
               Virtual  domain  rewriting  is  NOT  recursive,  unlike  regular
               aliases. For example:
 
               tom: john@example.com
               @example.com: larry
 
               You should explicitly expand the alias out:
 
               tom: larry-john
        The following notation associates an address directly with  a  mailbox,
        or with a program:
 
        info: /var/shared/info
 
        Messages  addressed  to  "info"  will  be  delivered  to the mailbox or
        maildir /var/shared/info.  A full pathname must be specified.
 
        info: | /usr/local/shared/info
 
        Mail addressed to "info" will be delivered to  the  indicated  program.
        The program receives each message on standard input.
 
        Program/mailbox  delivery  notation is primarily used to support legacy
        sendmail aliases entries.  This is considered to be a  legacy  feature,
dot-courier(5) file with the nec‐
        essary delivery instructions.  In fact, aliases for programs  or  mail‐
        boxes  is not directly supported by Courier’s aliasing mechanisms. It’s
        implemented by having the makealiases  script  automatically  create  a
        .courier file, and point the alias address to it.
 
dot-courier(5) for more information.
 
               Note:  Unlike sendmail, Courier delivers as user "daemon" (group
               daemon) when delivering to programs or mailboxes.
        The following notation allows mail addressed to a certain domain to  be
        forwarded via uucp:
 
        @domain: uucp!bang!path!
 
        The  trailing ! tells Courier not to append a dash, so user@domain gets
        rewritten as uucp!bang!path!user, and not uucp!bang!path-user, which is
        probably not what you want.
        An  alias with only one address does not affect delivery status notifi‐
        cation attributes of an E-mail message.
 
        An alias with multiple addresses is  treated  like  a  private  mailing
        list,  as  defined  by  RFC 1894.  If the message requests a successful
        delivery notification, Courier generates a delivery status notification
        for  the  successful  delivery  to  the aliased address, and each alias
        recipient address will have DSNs set to NEVER.
 

BUGS

        This has nothing to do with Courier’s support for a  Qmail-style  alias
        account.
 
        owner-foo feature of sendmail’s aliasing is not supported.
 
        Courier  normally  tries  to  eliminate  duplicate  addresses listed as
        recipients for the same message. Some mail servers are not  capable  of
        delivering messages with multiple recipients, and will transmit a sepa‐
        rate copy of the same message  addressed  to  each  recipient.  Courier
        can’t  do anything in this case. Each copy of the same original text is
        considered an individual, separate, message.
 
        Duplicate elimination can fail in certain rare circumstances, involving
        exotic features of RFC 2822 concerning case sensitivity.
 
        "@example.com:  jack,  jill" is allowed, but strongly discouraged under
        the penalty of law.
 
        Because multiple-recipient aliases are  treated  like  private  mailing
        lists,  failure  DSNs  are  turned  off, and a bad recipient address is
        hardly noticed by anyone.
 
        The makealiases command may execute while Courier is running,  and  any
        changes   take  effect  immediately.  However,  only  one  instance  of
        makealiases is permitted to run at the same time.
esmtpd(8).
 

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