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Provided by: courier-authlib-userdb_0.58-5ubuntu1_i386

 

NAME

        make - create /etc/courier/userdb
 

SYNOPSIS

        makeuserdb
 
        pw2userdb
 
        vchkpw2userdb [ --vpopmailhome=dir ] [ --todir=dir ]
 

DESCRIPTION

        makeuserdb   creates   /etc/courier/userdb.dat  from  the  contents  of
        /etc/courier/userdb.   /etc/courier/userdb’s  contents  are   described
        later  in this document.  Maildrop, Courier, and other applications use
        /etc/courier/userdb.dat as  a  substitute/complement  for  your  system
        password  file.   The  usual  purpose for /etc/courier/userdb.dat is to
        specify "virtual" accounts - accounts that do not  have  an  associated
        system login.  Usually (but not necessarily) all virtual accounts share
        the same system userid.  /etc/courier/userdb.dat may also replace  your
        system  password file. Because the system password file is a text file,
        when there’s a large number of accounts it will be significantly faster
        to  search  @userdb.dat@, which is a binary database, instead of a flat
        text file that the system password file usually is.
 
        The makeuserdb command can be  safely  executed  during  normal  system
        activity.
 
    FORMAT OF /ETC/COURIER/USERDB
        /etc/courier/userdb  is a plain text file that can be created using any
        text editor. Blank lines are ignored. Lines that start with the # char‐
        acter  are  comments, and are also ignored.  Other lines define proper‐
        ties of a single "account", one line per account.   /etc/courier/userdb
        may  be a directory instead of a plain file.  In that case all files in
        /etc/courier/userdb are essentially concatenated, and are treated as  a
        single file.  Each line takes the following format:
 
               name<TAB>field=value|field=value...
        name  is the account name.  name MUST contain only lowercase characters
        If Courier is configured to treat lowercase and uppercase account names
        as  identical,  name  is  followed by exactly one tab character, then a
        list of field/value pairs separated by vertical slashes.  field is  the
        name  of  the field, value is the field value.  Fields and values them‐
        self cannot contain slashes or control characters.  Fields may be spec‐
        ified  in  any  order. Here are all the currently defined fields.  Note
        that  not  every  field  is  used  by  every  application  that   reads
        /etc/courier/userdb.dat.
 
               uid  -  value  is a (possibly) unique numerical user ID for this
               account.
 
               gid - value is a (possibly) unique numerical group ID  for  this
               account.
 
               home - value is the account’s home directory.
 
               shell - value is the account’s default login shell.
 
userdbpw(8) for
               details on how to set up this field.
 
               pop3pw, esmtppw, imappw... - value specifies a separate password
               used  only  for  authenticating access using a specific service,
               such as POP3, IMAP, or anything else. If not  defined,  systempw
               is  always  used.  This  allows  access  to  an  account  to  be
               restricted only to certain services, such as POP3, even if other
               services are also enabled on the server.
 
               mail  -  value  specifies  the location of the account’s Maildir
               mailbox. This is an optional field that is  normally  used  when
               userdb  is used to provide aliases for other mail accounts.  For
               example, one particular multi-domain E-mail  service  configura‐
               tion that’s used by both Qmail and Courier servers is to deliver
               mail for a mailbox in a  virtual  domain,  such  as  "user@exam‐
               ple.com",  to a local mailbox called "example-user".  Instead of
               requiring the E-mail account holder to log in as  "example-user"
               to   download  mail  from  this  account,  a  userdb  entry  for
               "user@example.com" is set up with mail set to  the  location  of
               example-user’s  Maildir  mailbox,  thus hiding the internal mail
               configuration from the E-mail account holder’s view.
 
               quota - value specifies the  maildir  quota  for  the  account’s
               Maildir.   This has nothing to do with actual filesystem quotas.
               Courier has a software-based Maildir quota enforcement mechanism
               which   requires   additional   setup  and  configuration.   See
maildirquota(7) for additional information.
 
    /ETC/COURIER/USERDBSHADOW.DAT
        All  fields  whose  name  ends   with   ’pw’   will   NOT   copied   to
        /etc/courier/userdb.dat.    These    fields    will    be   copied   to
        /etc/courier/userdbshadow.dat.  makeuserdb creates /etc/courier/userdb‐
        shadow.dat   without  any  group  and  world  permissions.   Note  that
        makeuserdb reports an error if /etc/courier/userdb  has  any  group  or
        world permissions.
 
    CONVERTING /ETC/PASSWD AND VPOPMAIL TO /ETC/COURIER/USERDB FORMAT
        pw2userdb  reads the /etc/passwd and /etc/shadow files and converts all
        entries to the /etc/courier/userdb format, printing the result on stan‐
        dard   output.    The   output   of   pw2userdb   can   be   saved   as
        /etc/courier/userdb (or as some file  in  this  subdirectory).   Linear
        searches  of  /etc/passwd  can be very slow when you have tens of thou‐
        sands  of  accounts.    Programs   like   maildrop   always   look   in
        /etc/courier/userdb  first.   By  saving  the  system  password file in
        /etc/courier/userdb it is possible to significantly reduce  the  amount
        of time it takes to look up this information.
 
        After  saving the output of pw2userdb, you must still run makeuserdb to
        create /etc/courier/userdb.dat.
 
        vchkpw2userdb converts a  vpopmail-style  directory  hierarchy  to  the
        /etc/courier/userdb format.  This is an external virtual domain manage‐
        ment package that’s often used with Qmail servers.
 
        Generally, an account named ’vpopmail’ is reserved  for  this  purpose.
        In  that  account  the  file  users/vpasswd  has  the  same  layout  as
        /etc/passwd, and performs a similar function, except that all userid in
        users/vpasswd  have  the same userid.  Additionally, the domains subdi‐
        rectory stores virtual accounts for  multiple  domains.   For  example,
        domains/example.com/vpasswd  has  the  passwd file for the domain exam‐
        ple.com.  Some systems also have a  soft  link,  domains/default,  that
        points to a domain that’s considered a "default" domain.
 
        The  vchkpw2userdb  reads all this information, and tries to convert it
        into the /etc/courier/userdb format.  The --vpopmailhost option  speci‐
        fies  the  top  level directory, if it is not the home directory of the
        vpopmail account.
 
        The vchkpw2userdb script prints the  results  on  standard  output.  If
        specified, the --todir option tries to convert all vpasswd files one at
        a time, saving each one individually in dir. For example:
 
               mkdir /etc/courier/userdb
               vchkpw2userdb --todir=/etc/courier/userdb/vpopmail
               makeuserdb
 
        It is still necessary to run  makeuserdb,  of  course,  to  create  the
        binary database file /etc/courier/userdb.dat
 
        NOTE:   You  are still required to create the /etc/courier/userdb entry
        which maps system userids back to accounts, "uid=<TAB>name", if  that’s
        applicable. vchkpw2userdb will not do it for you.
 
        NOTE:   makeuserdb  may  complain  about  duplicate  entries,  if  your
        "default" entries in users/vpasswd or domains/default/vpasswd  are  the
        same  as  anything  in  any other /etc/courier/userdb file.  It is also
        likely that you’ll end up with duplicate,  but  distinct,  entries  for
        every  account  in  the  default  domain.  For example, if your default
        domain is example.com, you’ll end up with duplicate  entries  -  you’ll
        have entries for both user and user@example.com.
 
        If you intend to maintain the master set of accounts using vchkpw/vpop‐
        mail, in order to avoid cleaning this up every time, you might want  to
        consider doing the following: run vchkpw2userdb once, using the --todir
        option.  Then, go into the resulting directory, and replace one of  the
        redundant  files with a soft link to /dev/null.  This allows you to run
        vchkpw2userdb without having to go in and  cleaning  up  again,  after‐
        wards.
 

FILES

        /etc/courier/userdb
        /etc/courier/userdb.dat
        /etc/courier/userdbshadow.dat
        /etc/courier/userdb.tmp - temporary file
        /etc/courier/userdbshadow.tmp - temporary file
 

BUGS

        makeuserdb  is a Perl script, and uses Perl’s portable locking.  Perl’s
        documentation notes that certain combinations of  locking  options  may
        not work with some networks.
maildirquota(7).
 

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