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Provided by: maradns_1.2.12.04-1_i386

        maradns - DNS server


        maradns [ -v | -f mararc_file_location ]
        This man page has the following sections:
            Table of Contents
            Firewall Configuration
            Frequently Asked Questions
            Unimplemented Features
            Legal Disclaimer


        maradns is a DNS server written with security, simplicity, and
        performance in mind.
        maradns has two forms of arguments, both of which are optional.
        The first is the location of a mararc file which MaraDNS obtains all
        configuration information from.  The default location of this file is
        /etc/mararc.  This is specified in the form maradns -f
        mararc_file_location; mararc_file_location is the location of the
        mararc file.
        It is also possible to have MaraDNS display the version number and
        exit. This is specified by invoking maradns in the form maradns -v or
        maradns --version


        If MaraDNS is functioning only as a recursive nameserver, just one file
        needs to be set up: The mararc file.
        In order for MaraDNS to function as an authoritative nameserver, two or
        more files need to be set up: the mararc file and one or more "csv1"
        zone files.
        The configuration formation of a csv1 zone file can be obtained from
csv1(5) manual page. The configuration format of the mararc file
mararc(5) manual page.
        In order to have MaraDNS run as a daemon, the duende program is used to
duende(8) manual page for details.
        If MaraDNS is being used as an authoritative nameserver, allow UDP
        connections from all hosts on the internet to UDP port 53 for the IP
        that the authoritative nameserver uses.
        If MaraDNS is being used as a recursive nameserver, the firewall needs
        to allow the following packets to go to and from the IP the recursive
        nameserver uses:
        * Allow UDP connections from the MaraDNS-running server to any machine
          on the internet where the UDP destination port is 53
        * Allow UDP connections from any machine on the internet to the IP of
          the recursive server, where the source port from the remote server is
          53, and the destination port is between 15000 and 19095 (inclusive)
        * Allow UDP connections from IPs that use MaraDNS as a recursive DNS
          server to port 53 of the MaraDNS server
        MaraDNS uses a strong secure RNG for both the query (16 bits of
        entropy) and the source port of the query (12 bits of entropy). This
        makes spoofing replies to a MaraDNS server more difficult, since the
        attacker has only a one in 250 million chance that a given spoofed
        reply will be considered valid.
            1. I'm still using version 1.0 of MaraDNS
            2. How do I try out MaraDNS?
            3. What license is MaraDNS released under?
            4. How do I report bugs in MaraDNS?
            5. Some of the postings to the mailing list do not talk about
            6. How do I get off the mailing list?
            7. How do I set up reverse DNS on MaraDNS?
            8. I am on a slow network, and MaraDNS can not process recursive
            9. When I try to run MaraDNS, I get a cryptic error message.
            10. After I start MaraDNS, I can not see the process when I run
            netstat -na
            11. What string library does MaraDNS use?
            12. Why does MaraDNS use a multi-threaded model?
            13. I feel that XXX feature should be added to MaraDNS
            14. I feel that MaraDNS should use another documentation format
            15. Is there any process I need to follow to add a patch to
            16. Can MaraDNS act as a primary nameserver?
            17. Can MaraDNS act as a secondary nameserver?
            18. What is the difference between an authoritative and a recursive
            DNS server?
            19. The getzone client isn't allowing me to add certain hostnames
            to my zone
            20. Is MaraDNS portable?
            21. Can I use MaraDNS in Windows?
            22. MaraDNS freezes up after being used for a while
            23. What kind of Python integration does MaraDNS have
            24. Doesn't "kvar" mean "four" in Esperanto?
            25. How scalable is MaraDNS?
            26. I am having problems setting upstream_servers
            27. Why doesn't the MaraDNS.org web page validate?
            28. How do MX records work?
            29. Does MaraDNS have support for SPF?
            30. I'm having problems resolving CNAMES I have set up.
            31. I have a NS delegation, and MaraDNS is doing strange things.
            32. I am transferring a zone from another server, but the NS
            records are these strange "synth-ip" records.
     1. I'm still using version 1.0 of MaraDNS
        MaraDNS 1.0 will continue to be fully supported until December 21,
        2007; this means that MaraDNS 1.0 questions will still be answered and
        bug fixes will still be applied. After 2007/12/21, MaraDNS 1.0 will no
        longer be fully supported; the only updates, at that point, would be
        bugtraq-worthy critical security fixes. Not even these security updates
        will be applied after December 21, 2010.
        People who wish to run MaraDNS 1.0 unsupported after 2010/12/21 need to
        keep in mind that MaraDNS 1.0 is not Y2038 compliant, and will have
        problems starting in 2036 or so. MaraDNS 1.2, on the other hand, is
        fully Y2038 compliant.
        There is still a FAQ for version 1.0 of MaraDNS available here.
        Updating from 1.0 to 1.2 requires a minimum number of changes; with
        most configurations, MaraDNS 1.2 is fully compatible with MaraDNS 1.0
        data files. Details are in the updating document in the tutorial.
        While csv1 zone files are fully supported in MaraDNS 1.2, there is a
        Perl script for updating from CSV1 to CSV2 zone files in the tools/
        directory of MaraDNS 1.2.
     2. How do I try out MaraDNS?
        Read the quick start guide, which is the file named 0QuickStart in the
        MaraDNS distribution.
     3. What license is MaraDNS released under?
        MaraDNS 1.2 is released with the following two-clause BSD license: BSD-
        type license:
            Copyright (c) 2002-2005 Sam Trenholme
            Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
            modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
            are met:
            1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
            notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
            2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above
            copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
            disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided
            with the distribution.
            This software is provided 'as is' with no guarantees of correctness
            or fitness for purpose.
     4. How do I report bugs in MaraDNS?
        Please contact me; my email address is at
     5. Some of the postings to the mailing list do not talk about MaraDNS!
        In cases where I post something to the mailing list which does not
        directly talk about MaraDNS, the subject line will not have [MARA] in
        it, but will have some form of the word CHATTER in it.
        This way, people who do not like this can set up mail filters to filter
        out anything that comes from this list and doesn't have [MARA] in the
        subject line, or simply unsubscribe from the list and read the list
        from the archives; if one needs to report a bug, they can subscribe to
        the list again, post their bug, then unsubscribe after a week.
        Another option is to set up one's Freshmeat preferences to be notified
        in email every time I update MaraDNS at Freshmeat. This will give one
        email notice of any critical bug fixes without needing to be subscribed
        to the mailing list.
http://www.maradns.org/ has a link to the mailing list
     6. How do I get off the mailing list?
        Send an email to list-request@maradns.org with "unsubscribe" as the
        subject line.
     7. How do I set up reverse DNS on MaraDNS?
        Reverse DNS (sometimes called "reverse mapping") is set up by using PTR
        (pointer) records. For example, the PTR record which performs the
        reverse DNS lookup for the ip looks like this in a CSV2 zone
   PTR www.example.com.
        It is also possible, on MaraDNS 1.2.05 and more recent releases, to use
        a special "FQDN4" which automatically sets up the reverse mapping of a
        given record:
            www.example.com. FQDN6
        If you wish to have a PTR (reverse DNS lookup; getting a DNS name from
        a numeric IP) record work on the internet at large, it is not a simple
        matter of just adding a record like this to a MaraDNS zonefile. One
        also needs control of the appropriate in-addr.arpa. domain.
        While it can make logical sense to contact the IP when
        trying to get the reverse DNS lookup (fully qualified domain name) for
        a given IP, DNS servers don't do this. DNS server, instead, contact the
        root DNS servers for a given in-addr.arpa name to get the reverse DNS
        lookup, just like they do with any other record type.
        When an internet service provider is given a block of IPs, they are
        also given control of the DNS zones which allow them to control reverse
        DNS lookups for those IPs. While it is possible to obtain a domain and
        run a DNS server without the knowledge or intervention of an ISP, being
        able to control reverse DNS lookups for those IPs requires ISP
     8. I am on a slow network, and MaraDNS can not process recursive queries
        MaraDNS, by default, only waits two seconds for a reply from a remote
        DNS server. This default can be increased by adding a line like this in
        the mararc file:
            timeout_seconds = 5
        Note that making this too high will slow MaraDNS down when DNS servers
        are down, which is, alas, all too common on today's internet.
     9. When I try to run MaraDNS, I get a cryptic error message.
        There is usually some context of where there is a syntax error in a
        data file before the cryptic error message. For example, when there is
        a syntax error in a csv2 zone file, MaraDNS will tell you exactly at
        what point it had to terminate parsing of the zone file.
        If MaraDNS does return a cryptic error message without letting you know
        what is wrong, let me know so that I can fix the bug. MaraDNS is
        designed to be easy to use; cryptic error messages go against this
     10. After I start MaraDNS, I can not see the process when I run netstat
        Udp services do not have a prominent "LISTEN" when netstat is run.
        When MaraDNS is up, the relevant line in the netstat output looks like
        this: udp 0 0*
        While on the topic of netstat, if you run netstat -nap as root on Linux
        and some other *nix operating systems, you can see the names of the
        processes which are providing internet services.
     11. What string library does MaraDNS use?
        MaraDNS uses its own string library, which is called the "js_string"
        library. Man pages for most of the functions in the js_string library
        are in the folder doc/man of the MaraDNS distribution
     12. Why does MaraDNS use a multi-threaded model?
        The multi-threaded model is, plain and simple, the simplest way to
        write a functioning recursive DNS server. There is a reason why
        MaraDNS, pdnsd, and BIND 9 all use the multi-threaded model.
     13. I feel that XXX feature should be added to MaraDNS
        The only thing that will convince me to implement a given feature for
        MaraDNS is cold, hard cash. If you want me to keep a given feature
        proprietary, you better have lots of cold hard cash. If you're willing
        to opensource your feature, less cash should be sufficient.
        Keep in mind that both the BIND and NSD name servers were developed by
        having the programmers paid to work on the programs.  PowerDNS was
        originally commercial software with the author only reluctantly made
        GPL after seeing that the market for a commercial DNS server is very
        small. All of the other DNS servers which have been developed as
        hobbyist projects (Posadis, Pdnsd, and djbdns) are no longer being
        actively worked on by the primary developer.
        I plan on someday adding standards-compliant BIND zone file support.
        After that, I may even add real DNS slave support.
        If I see a large MaraDNS community and a strong demand for new features
        from that community, I will consider their wishes. Especially if some
        of the members of the community have large bank accounts. Should ipv6
        start to become dominant, I will update MaraDNS to have full ipv6
        support. Should some other technology come along that will require an
        update to MaraDNS for MaraDNS to continue to function as a DNS server,
        I may very well update MaraDNS to use that technology.
     14. I feel that MaraDNS should use another documentation format
        The reason that MaraDNS uses its own documentation format is to satisfy
        both the needs of translators to have a unified document format and my
        own need to use a documentation format that is simple enough to be
        readily understood and which I can add features on an as needed basis.
        The documentation format is essentially simplified HTML with some
        special tags added to meet MaraDNS' special needs.
        This gives me more flexibility to adapt the documentation format to
        changing needs. For example, when someone pointed out that it's not a
        good idea to have man pages with hi-bit characters, it was a simple
        matter to add a new HIBIT tag which allows man pages to be without hi-
        bit characters, and other document formats to retain hi-bit characters.
        Having a given program have its own documentation format is not without
        precedent; Perl uses its own "pod" documentation format.
     15. Is there any process I need to follow to add a patch to MaraDNS?
        Here is the procedure for making a proper patch:
        * Enter the directory that the file is in, for example
        * Copy over the file that you wish to modify to another file name. For
          example: cp MaraDNS.c MaraDNS.c.orig
        * Edit the file in question, e.g: vi MaraDNS.c
        * After editing, do something like this:
          diff -u MaraDNS.c.orig MaraDNS.c > maradns.patch
        * Make sure the modified version compiles cleanly
        Send a patch to me in email, along with a statement that you place the
        contents of the patch under MaraDNS' BSD license. If I find that the
        patch works well, I will integrate it in to MaraDNS.
     16. Can MaraDNS act as a primary nameserver?
        The zoneserver program serves zones so that other DNS servers can be
        secondaries for zones which MaraDNS serves. This is a separate program
        from the maradns server, which processes both authoritative and
        recursive UDP DNS queries.
        See the DNS master document in the MaraDNS tutorial for details.
     17. Can MaraDNS act as a secondary nameserver?
        Please read the DNS slave document, which is part of the MaraDNS
     18. What is the difference between an authoritative and a recursive DNS
        A recursive DNS server is a DNS server that is able to contact other
        DNS servers in order to resolve a given domain name label. This is the
        kind of DNS server one points to in /etc/resolve.conf
        An authoritative DNS server is a DNS server that a recursive server
        contacts in order to find out the answer to a given DNS query.
     19. The fetchzone client isn't allowing me to add certain hostnames to my
        For security reasons, MaraDNS' fetchzone client does not add records
        which are not part of the zone in question. For example, if someone has
        a zone for example.com, and this record in the zone:
 PTR dns.example.com.
        MaraDNS will not add the record, since the record is out-of-bailiwick.
        In other words, it is a host name that does not end in .example.com.
        There are two workarounds for this issue:
        * Create a zone file for 1.1.10.in-addr.arpa., and put the PTR records
        * Use rcp, rsync, or another method to copy over the zone files in
     20. Is MaraDNS portable?
        MaraDNS will only compile on FreeBSD, Mac OS X, Cygwin, Linux, and
        partially on MinGW32 systems. If you are interested in porting MaraDNS
        to another system, please let me know.
     21. Can I use MaraDNS in Windows?
        Yes. There is both a partial mingw32 (native win32 binary) port and a
        full Cygwin port of MaraDNS; both of these ports are part of the native
        build of MaraDNS.
     22. MaraDNS freezes up after being used for a while
        If you are using MaraDNS (or any 1.1 release, for that matter)
        on Linux, upgrade to version There is a bug with the Linux
        kernel which causes UDP clients to freeze unless code is written to
        work around the kernel bug. This workaround was first introduced in
        MaraDNS 1.0.28 and 1.1.35 and accidently disabled in
        If using your ISP's name servers or some other name servers which are
        not, in fact, root name servers, please make sure that you are using
        the upstream_servers dictionary variable instead of the root_servers
        dictionary variable.
        If you still see MaraDNS freeze up after making this correction, please
        send a bug report to the mailing list.
     23. What kind of Python integration does MaraDNS have
        The mararc file uses the same syntax that Python uses; in fact, Python
        can parse a properly formatted mararc file.
        There is currently no other integration with Python.
     24. Doesn't "kvar" mean "four" in Esperanto?
        Indeed, it does. However the use of "kvar" in the MaraDNS source code
        only coincidentally is an Esperanto word. "kvar" is short for "Kiwi
        variable"; a lot of the parsing code comes from the code used in the
        Kiwi spam filter project.
     25. How scalable is MaraDNS?
        MaraDNS is optimized for serving a small number of domains as quickly
        as possible. That said, MaraDNS is remarkably efficnent for serving a
        large number of domains, as long as the server MaraDNS is on has the
        memory to fit all of the domains, and as long as the startup time for
        loading a large number of domains can be worked around.
        The "big-O" or "theta" growth rates for various MaraDNS functions are
        as follows, where N is the number of authoritative host names being
        Startup time                            N
        Memory usage                            N
        Processing incoming DNS requests        1
        As can be seen, MaraDNS will process 1 or 100000 domains in the same
        amount of time, once the domain names are loaded in to memory.
     26. I am having problems setting upstream_servers
        The upstream_servers mararc variable is set thusly:
            upstream_servers["."] = ","
        Note the ["."]. The reason for this is so future versions of MaraDNS
        may have more fine-grained control over the upstream_servers and
        root_servers values.
        Note that the upstream_servers variable needs to be initialized before
        being used via upstream_servers = {} (the reason for this is so that a
        mararc file has 100% Python-compatible syntax). A complete mararc file
        that uses upstream_servers may look like this:
        ipv4_bind_addresses = ""
        chroot_dir = "/etc/maradns"
        recursive_acl = ""
        upstream_servers = {}
        upstream_servers["."] = ","
     27. Why doesn't the MaraDNS.org web page validate?
        HTML pages on the MaraDNS.org web site should validate as HTML 4.0
        Transitional. However, the CSS will not validate.
        I have designed MaraDNS' web page to be usable and as attractive as
        possible in any major browser released in the last ten years. Cross-
        browser support is more important than strict W3 validation. The reason
        why the CSS does not validate is because I need a way to make sure
        there is always a scrollbar on the web page, even if the content is not
        big enough to merit one; this is to avoid the content jumping from page
        to page. There is no standard CSS tag that lets me do this. I'm using a
        non-standard tag to enable this in Gecko (Firefox's rendering engine);
        this is enabled by default in Trident (Internet Explorer's rendering
        engine). The standards are deficient and blind adherence to them would
        result in an inferior web site.
        There are also two validation warnings generated by redefinitions which
        are needed as part of the CSS filters used to make the site attractive
        on older browsers with limited CSS support.
        On a related note, the reason why I use tables instead of CSS for some
        of the layout is because Microsoft Internet Explorer 6 and other
        browsers do not have support for the max-width CSS property. Without
        this property, the web page will not scale down correctly without using
        tables.  Additionally, tables allow a reasonably attractive header in
        browsers without CSS support.
     28. How do MX records work?
        How MX records work:
        * The mail transport agent (Sendmail, Postfix, Qmail, MS Exchange,
          etc.)  looks up the MX record for the domain
        * For each of the records returned, the MTA (mail transport agent)
          looks up the IP for the names.
        * It will choose, at random, any of the MXes with the lowest priority
        * Should that server fail, it will try another server with the same
          priority number.
        * Should all MX records with a given priority number fail, the MTA will
          try sending email to any of the MX records with the second-lowest
          priority value.
        As an aside, do not have MX records point to CNAMEs.
     29. Does MaraDNS have support for SPF?
        SPF, or sender policy framework, is method of using DNS that makes it
        more difficult to forge email. MaraDNS has full support for SPF, both
        via TXT records and, starting with MaraDNS 1.2.08, via RFC4408 SPF
        SPF configuration is beyond the scope of MaraDNS' documentation.
        However, at the time of this FAQ entry being written (June, 2006),
        information and documentation concerning SPF is available at
http://openspf.org. The BIND examples will work in MaraDNS csv2 zone
        files as long as the double quotes (") are replaced by single quotes
        ('). For example, a SPF TXT record that looks like example.net. IN TXT
        "v=spf1 +mx a:colo.example.com/28 -all" in a BIND zone file will look
        like example.net. TXT 'v=spf1 +mx a:colo.example.com/28 -all' in a
        MaraDNS zone file. MaraDNS version 1.2.08 and higher can also make the
        corresponding SPF record, which will have the syntax example.net. SPF
        'v=spf1 +mx a:colo.example.com/28 -all'.
     30. I'm having problems resolving CNAMES I have set up.
        This is probably because you have set up what MaraDNS calls a dangling
        CNAME record.
        Let us suppose we have a CNAME record without an A record in the local
        DNS server's database, such as:
             google.example.com. CNAME www.google.com.
        This record, which is a CNAME record for "google.example.com", points
        to "www.google.com". Some DNS servers will recursively look up
        www.google.com, and render the above record like this:
             google.example.com. CNAME www.google.com.
             www.google.com. CNAME
        For security reasons, MaraDNS doesn't do this. Instead, MaraDNS will
        simply output:
             google.example.com. CNAME www.google.com.
        Some stub resolvers will be unable to resolve google.example.com as a
        If you set up MaraDNS to resolve CNAMEs thusly, you will get a warning
        in your logs about having a dangling CNAME record.
        If you want to remove these warnings, add the following to your mararc
             no_cname_warnings = 1
        Information about how to get MaraDNS to resolve dangling CNAME records
        is in the tutorial file dangling.html
     I have a NS delegation, and MaraDNS is doing strange things.
        In the case of there being a NS delegation, MaraDNS handles recursive
        queries and non-recursive DNS queries differently. Basically, unless
        you use askmara with the -n option, dig with the +norecuse option, or
        nslookup with the -norec option, MaraDNS will try to recursively
        resolve the record that is delegated.
        The thinking is this: A normal recursive DNS query is usually one where
        one wants to know the final DNS output. So, if MaraDNS delegates a
        given record to another DNS server, and gets a recursive request for
        said query, MaraDNS will recursively resolve the query for you.
        For example, let us suppose we have a mararc file that looks like this:
        chroot_dir = "/etc/maradns"
        ipv4_bind_addresses = ""
        chroot_dir = "/etc/maradns"
        recursive_acl = ","
        csv2 = {}
        csv2["example.com."] = "db.example.com"
        And a db.example.com file that looks like this:
        joe.example.com.    NS ns.joe.example.com.
        ns.joe.example.com. A
        Next, you are trying to find out why www.joe.example.com is not
        resolving. If you naively send a query to for
        www.joe.example.com as askmara Awww.joe.example.com. or as dig
        @ www.joe.example.com. or as nslookup www.joe.example.com., you will not get any information that will help you solve the
        problem, since will try to contact to resolve
        The solution is to run your DNS query client thusly:
        * Askmara would be run thusly:
        askmara -n Awww.joe.example.com.
        * Dig would be run thusly:
        dig +norecurse @ www.joe.example.com
        * Nslookup would be run thusly:
        nslookup -norec www.joe.example.com
        This will allow you to see that packets MaraDNS actually sends to a
        recursive DNS server.
        As an aside, this particular problem will not happen if MaraDNS is run
        only as an authoritative nameserver.
     I am transferring a zone from another server, but the NS records are these
     strange "synth-ip" records.
        MaraDNS expects, in csv2 zone files, for all delegation NS records to
        be between the SOA record and the first non-NS record.
        If a zone looks like this:
        example.net. +600 soa ns1.example.net. hostmaster@example.net
        10 10800 3600 604800 1080
        example.net. +600 mx 10 mail.example.net.
        example.net. +600 a
        example.net. +600 ns ns1.example.net.
        example.net. +600 ns ns3.example.net.
        mail.example.net. +600 a
        www.example.net. +600 a
        Then the NS records will be "synth-ip" records.
        The zone should look like this:
        example.net. +600 soa ns1.example.net. hostmaster@example.net
        10 10800 3600 604800 1080
        example.net. +600 ns ns1.example.net.
        example.net. +600 ns ns3.example.net.
        example.net. +600 mx 10 mail.example.net.
        example.net. +600 a
        mail.example.net. +600 a
        www.example.net. +600 a
        This will remove the "synth-ip" records.
        To automate this process, this awk script is useful:
        fetchzone whatever.zone.foo | awk '
        {if($3 ~ /ns/ || $3 ~ /soa/){print}
        else{a = a "\n" $0}}
        END{print a}' > zonefile.csv2
        Replace "whatever.zone.foo" with the name of the zone you are fetchin with the IP address of the DNS master, and zonefile.csv2 with
        the name of the zone file MaraDNS loads.


        In the unusual case of having a csv2 zone file with Macintosh-style
        newlines (as opposed to DOS or UNIX newlines), while the file will
        parse, any errors in the file will be reported as being on line 1.
        The maximum allowed number of threads is 5000.
        The system startup script included with MaraDNS assumes that the only
        MaraDNS processes running are started by the script; it stops all
        MaraDNS processes running on the server when asked to stop MaraDNS.
        When a resolver asks for an A record, and the A record is a CNAME which
        points to a list of IPs, MaraDNS' recursive resolver only returns the
        first IP listed along with the CNAME. This is somewhat worked around by
        having a CNAME record only stay in the recursive cache for 15 minutes.
        When a resolver asks for an A record, and the A record is a CNAME that
        points to another CNAME (and possibly a longer CNAME chain), while
        MaraDNS returns the correct IP (as long as the glueless level is not
        exceeded), MaraDNS will incorrectly state that the first CNAME in the
        chain directly points to the IP.
        If a NS record points to a list of IPs, and the NS record in question
        is a "glueless" record (MaraDNS had to go back to the root servers to
        find out the IP of the machine in question), MaraDNS' recursive
        resolver only uses the first listed IP as a name server.
        When MaraDNS' recursive resolver receives a "host not there" reply,
        instead of using the SOA minimum of the "host not there" reply as the
        TTL (Look at RFC1034 section 4.3.4), MaraDNS uses the TTL of the SOA
        MaraDNS keeps referral NS records in the cache for one day instead of
        the TTL specified by the remote server.
        MaraDNS needs to use the zoneserver program to serve DNS records over
zoneserver(8) for usage information.
        MaraDNS does not use the zone file ("master file") format specified in
        chapter 5 of RFC1035.
        MaraDNS default behavior with star records is not RFC-compliant.  In
        more detail, if a wildcard MX record exists in the form
        "*.example.com", and there is an A record for "www.example.com", but no
        MX record for "www.example.com", the correct behavior (based on RFC1034
        section 4.3.3) is to return "no host" (nothing in the answer section,
        SOA in the authority section, 0 result code) for a MX request to
        "www.example.com".  Instead, MaraDNS returns the MX record attached to
        "*.example.com".  This can be changed by setting bind_star_handling to
        Star records (what RFC1034 calls "wildcards") can not be attached to NS
        MaraDNS recursive resolver treats any TTL shorter than min_ttl seconds
        (min_ttl_cname seconds when the record is a CNAME record) as if the TTL
        in question was min_ttl (or min_ttl_cname) seconds long when
        determining when to expire a record from MaraDNS' cache.
        TTLs which are shorter than 20 seconds long are given a TTL of 20
        seconds; TTLs which are more than 63072000 (2 years) long are given a
        TTL of 2 years.
        MaraDNS' recursive resolver's method of deleting not recently accessed
        records from the cache when the cache starts to fill up can deleted
        records from the cache before they expire. Some people consider this
        undesirable behavior; I feel it is necessary behavior if one wishes to
        place a limit on the memory resources a DNS server may use.
        MaraDNS' recursive resolver stops resolving when it finds an answer in
        the AR section. This is a problem in the case where a given host name
        and IP is registered with the root name servers, and the registered IP
        is out of date. When this happens, a server "closer" to the root server
        will give an out-of-date IP, even though the authoritative DNS servers
        for the host in question have the correct IP. Note that resolving this
        will result in increased DNS traffic.
        MaraDNS, like every other known DNS implementation, only supports a
        QDCOUNT of 0 or 1.
        MaraDNS spawns a new thread for every single recursive DNS request when
        the data in question is not in MaraDNS' cache; this makes MaraDNS an
        excellent stress tester for pthread implementations.  Many pthread
        implementations can not handle this kind of load; symptoms include high
        memory usage and termination of the MaraDNS process.
        MaraDNS does not handle the case of a glueless in-bailiwick NS referral
        very gracefully; this usually causes the zone pointed to by the
        offending NS record to be unreachable by MaraDNS, even if other DNS
        servers for the domain have correct NS referrals.
        These are features which will not be implemented in the 1.2 release of
        MaraDNS does not have a disk-based caching scheme for authoritative
        MaraDNS' UDP server only loads zone files while MaraDNS is first
        started.  UDP Zone information can only be updated by stopping MaraDNS,
        and restarting MaraDNS again. Note that TCP zone files are loaded from
        the filesystem at the time the client requests a zone.
        MaraDNS does not have support for allowing given host names to only
        resolve for a limited range of IPs querying the DNS server, or for host
        names to resolve differently, depending on the IP querying the host
        MaraDNS only has limited authoritative-only support for IPv6.
        MaraDNS only allows wildcards at the beginning or end of a host name.
        E.g. names with wildcards like "foo.*.example.com". "www.*" will work,
        however, if a default zonefile is set up.
        MaraDNS does not have support for MRTG or any other SNMP-based logging


        Sam Trenholme (http://www.samiam.org) is responsible for this man page.
        MaraDNS is written by me, Sam Trenholme, with a little help from my
        friends. Naturally, all errors in MaraDNS are my own (but read the
        disclaimer above).
        Here is a partial list of people who have provided assistance:
        Floh has generously set up a FreeBSD 4, FreeBSD 6, and Mac OS X system
        so that I can port MaraDNS to more platforms.
        Albert Lee has provided countless bug reports, and, nicely enough,
        patches to fix said bugs. He has also made improvements to the code in
        the tcp "zoneserver".
        Franky Van Liedekerke has provided much invaluable assistance. As just
        one example, he provided invaluable assistance in getting MaraDNS to
        compile on Solaris. In addition, he has provided much valuable SQA
        Christian Kurz, who has provided invaluable bug reports, especially
        when I had to re-implement the core hashing algorithm.
        Remmy, who is providing both the web space and a mailing list for
        Phil Homewood, who provided invaluable assistance with finding and
        fixing bugs in the authoritative portion of the MaraDNS server. He
        helped me plug memory leaks, find uninitialized variables being used,
        and found a number of bugs I was unable to find.
        Albert Prats kindly provided Spanish translations for various text
        Shin Zukeran provided a patch to recursive.c which properly makes a
        normal null-terminated string from a js_string object, to send as an
        argument to open() so we can get the rijndael key for the PRNG.
        D Richard Felker III has provided invaluable bug reports. By looking at
        his bug reports, I have been able to hunt down and fix many problems
        that the recursive nameserver had, in addition to at least one problem
        with the authoritative nameserver.
        Ole Tange has also given me many valuable MaraDNS bug reports.
        Florin Iucha provided a tip in the FAQ for how to compile MaraDNS on
        Roy Arends (one of the BIND developers, as it turns out) found a
        serious security problem with MaraDNS, where MaraDNS would answer
        answers, and pointed it out to me.
        Code used as the basis for the psudo-random-number generator was
        written by Vincent Rijmen, Antoon Bosselaers, and Paulo Barreto. I
        appreciate these programmers making the code public domain, which is
        the only license under which I can add code to MaraDNS under.
        Ross Johnson and others have made a Win32 port of the Pthreads library;
        this has made a native win32 port of MaraDNS possible.
        I also appreciate the work of Dr. Brian Gladman and Fritz Schneider,
        who have both written independent implementations of AES from which I
        obtained test vectors. With the help of their hard work, I was able to
        discover a subtle security problem that previous releases of MaraDNS


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